4,202 research outputs found

    GM food technology abroad and its implications for Australia and New Zealand

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    The potential economic benefits from agricultural biotechnology adoption by ANZ need to be weighed against any likely loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms. This paper uses the global GTAP model to estimate effects of other countries' GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios are positive even in the presence of the ban on imports from GM-adopting countries by the EU (but not if East Asia also applied such a ban).Biotechnology, GMOs, regulation, trade policy, computable general equilibrium, Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, C68, D58, F13, O3, Q17, Q18,

    STANDARDS, TRADE AND PROTECTION: THE CASE OF GMOS

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    A global economy-wide model (GTAP) is used to go beyond estimating how GM crop variety adoption affects adopting and non-adopting economies, with or without policy responses to this technology, by indicating effects also on real incomes of farmers. The results suggest the EU moratorium on imports of GM food helps EU farmers even though it requires them to forego the productivity boost they could receive from the new biotechnology. An upper-bound estimate of the cost of that EU moratorium to developing countries and the world also is provided.International Relations/Trade,

    Standards, trade and protection: the case of GMOs

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    A global economy-wide model (GTAP) is used to go beyond estimating how GM crop variety adoption affects adopting and non-adopting economies, with or without policy responses to this technology, by indicating effects also on real incomes of farmers. The results suggest the EU moratorium on imports of GM food helps EU farmers even though it requires them to forego the productivity boost they could receive from the new biotechnology. An estimate of the cost of that EU moratorium to developing countries and the world also is provided.Biotechnology, trade policy, political economy, regulation of standards, general equilibrium.

    Some Implications of GM Food Technology Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa

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    The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with ‘golden rice’, which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health of unskilled labourers in developing countries. This paper analyses empirically the potential economic effects of adopting both types of innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It does so using the global economy-wide computable general equilibrium model known as GTAP. The results suggest the welfare gains are potentially very large, especially from golden rice, and that – contrary to the claims of numerous interests – those estimated benefits are diminished only slightly by the presence of the European Union’s current barriers to imports of GM foods. In particular, if SSA countries impose bans on GM crop imports in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products, the loss to domestic consumers due to that protectionism boost to SSA farmers is far more than the small gain in terms of greater market access to the EU.Biotechnology, GMOs, trade policy, regulation, computable general equilibrium, Sub-Saharan Africa.

    GM crop technology and trade restraints: economic implications for Australia and New Zealand

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    How much might the potential economic benefit from enhanced farm productivity associated with crop biotechnology adoption by Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) be offset by a loss of market access abroad for crops that may contain genetically modified (GM) organisms? This paper uses the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model to estimate effects of other countries’ GM policies without and with ANZ farmers adopting GM varieties of various grains and oilseeds. The gross economic benefits to ANZ from adopting GM crops under a variety of scenarios could be positive even if the strict controls on imports from GM-adopting countries by the European Union are maintained, but not if North-East Asia also applied such trade restaints. From those gross economic effects would need to be subtracted society’s evaluation of any new food safety concerns and negative environmental externalities (net of any new environmental and occupational health benefits), as well as any extra costs of segregation, identity preservation and consumer search.biotechnology, computable general equilibrium, genetically modified organisms, regulation, trade policy, Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade,

    WHY ARE US AND EU POLICIES TOWARD GMOs SO DIFFERENT?

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    The development of genetically modified (GM) agricultural products requires new policies to manage potential food safety and environmental risks. The policy positions taken to date on GM foods by the United States and the European Union are very different. The US has few restrictions on production and trade in GM food products and no costly labelling requirements, whereas the EU has close to a ban on the production and importation of GM foods. This paper seeks to explain (a) why both the US and EU policies are extreme in the light of the uncertainty about the risks associated with GM foods, (b) what their consequences are for income distribution and trade in farm products, and (c) what it means for the GM policies and economic welfare of people in other (particularly developing) countries. In this paper we use the GTAP global economy wide model to estimate the extent of the trade, national welfare and income distributional effects of the actual policy choices of the US and the EU as compared with what they would be if GM products were adopted with less-distortionary GM policies. The distributional effects are used to also shed light on why the US and EU have adopted such different sub-optimal GM policies.genetically modified crops, trade barriers, productivity growth, political economy of agricultural protection, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade,

    Implications of genetically modified food technology policies for Sub-Saharan Africa

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    The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with"golden rice,"which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health of unskilled laborers in developing countries. The authors analyze empirically the potential economic effects of adopting both types of innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). They do so using the global economy-wide computable general equilibrium model known as GTAP. The results suggest that the welfare gains are potentially very large, especially from nutritionally enhanced GM wheat and rice, and that-contrary to the claims of numerous interests-those estimated benefits are diminished only slightly by the presence of the European Union's current barriers to imports of GM foods. In particular, if SSA countries impose bans on GM crop imports in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products, the loss to domestic consumers due to that protectionism boost to SSA farmers is far more than the small economic gain for these farmers from greater market access to the EU.Economic Theory&Research,Crops&Crop Management Systems,Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems,Environmental Economics&Policies,Agricultural Research,Crops&Crop Management Systems,Environmental Economics&Policies,Agricultural Research,Economic Theory&Research,Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems

    Identification of ebs1, lsm6 and nup159 as suppressors of spt10 effects at ADH2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests post-transcriptional defects affect mRNA synthesis

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    Suppression of the effects of an spt10 mutation on ADH2 expression is a phenotype shared by a small number of genes whose protein products are either components of the CCR4-NOT complex required for mRNA deadenylation and degradation (CCR4, CAF1, NOT4) or have been shown to interact with the complex (DBF2, SRB9, SRB10). In this work, we conducted a screen for additional suppressors of spt10 at ADH2 to identify new factors related to CCR4 function. In addition to reisolating ccr4 and caf1 alleles, three previously unidentified suppressors of spt10 were obtained: ebs1, lsm6, and nup159. These three genes are known or presumed to affect mRNA export or degradation. Mutations in EBS1, LSM6 and NUP159 not only suppressed spt10-induced ADH2 expression but also, like ccr4 and caf1 defects, reduced the ability of ADH2 to derepress. None of these defects affected the expression of CCR4-NOT complex components or the formation of the CCR4-NOT complex. The reduced ADH2 expression was also not the result of increased degradation of ADH2 mRNA, as the lsm6 and nup159 alleles, like that of a ccr4 deletion, actually slowed ADH2 degradation. Our results indicate that alterations in factors that slow mRNA degradation or affect mRNA transport may also interfere with the synthesis of mRNA and suggest an integration of such events in gene expression

    Recent and Prospective Adoption of Genetically Modified Cotton: A Global CGE Analysis of Economic Impacts

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    This paper provides estimates of the economic impact of initial adoption of genetically modified (GM) cotton and of its potential impacts beyond the few countries where it is currently common. Use is made of the latest version of the GTAP database and model. Our results suggest that by following the lead of China, South Africa and most recently India, adoption of GM cotton varieties by other developing countries – especially in Sub-Saharan Africa – could provide even larger proportionate gains to farmer and national welfare than in those early-adopting countries. Furthermore, those estimated gains are shown to exceed – and reinforce – those from a successful campaign under the WTO’s Doha Development Agenda to reduce/remove cotton subsidies and import tariffs globally.GMOs, cotton biotechnology, computable general equilibrium modeling, economic welfare, subsidy and tariff reform

    Recent and prospective adoption of genetically modified cotton : a global computable general equilibrium analysis of economic impacts

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    The authors provide estimates of the economic impact of initial adoption of genetically modified (GM) cotton and of its potential impacts beyond the few countries where it is currently common. They use the latest version of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and model. The results suggest that by following the lead of China and South Africa, adoption of GM cotton varieties by other developing countries-especially in Sub-Saharan Africa-could provide even larger proportionate gains to farmer and national welfare than in those first-adopting countries. Furthermore, the estimated gains are shown to exceed those from a successful campaign under the World Trade Organization's Doha Development Agenda to reduce and remove cotton subsidies and import tariffs globally.Crops&Crop Management Systems,Environmental Economics&Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Textiles, Apparel&Leather Industry,Livestock&Animal Husbandry
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