346 research outputs found

    Correlation Between Low Strain Shear Modulus and Standard Penetration Test ‘N’ Values

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    In this study an attempt has been made to develop correlation between standard penetration test (SPT) N values and low strain shear modulus (Gmax). The field experiments of Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) are carried out at 38 locations close to boreholes having Standard Penetration Test N values and in-situ density. These experimental data were generated and used for seismic microzonation of Bangalore, India. In-situ densities of subsurface layers were obtained from undisturbed soil samples collected from the boreholes. Shear wave velocity (Vs) profile with depth were obtained for the same locations or close to the boreholes using MASW. The low strain shear modulus values have been calculated using measured Vs and soil density. About 215 pairs of SPT N and shear modulus values are used for regression analysis and correlation between them are developed. The differences between fitted regression relations using measured and corrected N values were analyzed and presented. More details of correlation between shear modulus versus measured and corrected SPT N values and comparisons are presented elsewhere

    Survey and surveillance on rice false smut disease severity in Tamil Nadu and the influence of wind velocity on disease progression under field conditions

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    The false smut disease of rice incited by Ustilaginoidea virens is a major constraint on rice production. The main aim of the present study was to ascertain the false smut disease severity in both delta and non-delta districts of Tamil Nadu through survey and surveillance and assess the correlation between the disease severity and wind velocity for the past three years, 2019, 2020 and 2021. Moreover, the present study addressed the disease distribution pattern of false smut diseases under field conditions.  The results obtained from survey results revealed that the maximum disease severity was recorded in Nagapattinam district (Nagapattinam block) with 27.45% and the minimum disease severity was recorded in the district Theni (Bodinayakanur block) with 8% in 2021. Similarly in 2019 and 2020 maximum disease severity was recorded in the following districts Thanjavur district (Orathanadu block) with 19.91% and Thanjavur district (Peravurani block) with 18.54% and the minimum disease severity was recorded in the following districts Madurai district (Madurai north block) with 4.78% and Madurai district (Usilampatti block) with 4.78% respectively. The obtained R2 values through regression analysis were 0.70, 0.79 and 0.76 in the following years, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. Besides the relationship between the false smut disease development, the pattern wind direction was also assessed. By assessing the false smut disease distribution pattern under field conditions, more disease distribution was observed around the surrounding area of the paddy field as well as the diagonal path of the field which clearly revealed that wind direction influences the disease development

    DREB1A overexpression in transgenic chickpea alters key traits influencing plant water budget across water regimes

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    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is mostly exposed to terminal drought stress which adversely influences its yield. Development of cultivars for suitable drought environments can offer sustainable solutions. We genetically engineered a desi-type chickpea variety to ectopically overexpress AtDREB1A, a transcription factor known to be involved in abiotic stress response, driven by the stress-inducible Atrd29A promoter. From several transgenic events of chickpea developed by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, four single copy events (RD2, RD7, RD9 and RD10) were characterized for DREB1A gene overexpression and evaluated under water stress in a biosafety greenhouse at T6 generation. Under progressive water stress, all transgenic events showed increased DREB1A gene expression before 50 % of soil moisture was lost (50 % FTSW or fraction of transpirable soil water), with a faster DREB1A transcript accumulation in RD2 at 85 % FTSW. Compared to the untransformed control, RD2 reduced its transpiration in drier soil and higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) range (2.0–3.4 kPa). The assessment of terminal water stress response using lysimetric system that closely mimics the soil conditions in the field, showed that transgenic events RD7 and RD10 had increased biomass partitioning into shoot, denser rooting in deeper layers of soil profile and higher transpiration efficiency than the untransformed control. Also, RD9 with deeper roots and RD10 with higher root diameter showed that the transgenic events had altered rooting pattern compared to the untransformed control. These results indicate the implicit influence of rd29A::DREB1A on mechanisms underlying water uptake, stomatal response, transpiration efficiency and rooting architecture in water-stressed plants

    Changes in timing of water uptake and phenology favours yield gain in terminal water stressed chickpea AtDREB1A transgenics

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    Terminal drought causes major yield loss in chickpea, so it is imperative to identify genotypes with best suited adaptive traits to secure yield in terminal drought-prone environments. Here, we evaluated chickpea (At) rd29A:: (At) DREB1A transgenic events (RD2, RD7, RD9 and RD10) and their untransformed C235 genotype for growth, water use and yield under terminal water-stress (WS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. The assessment was made across three lysimetric trials conducted in contained environments in the greenhouse (2009GH and 2010GH) and the field (2010F). Results from the greenhouse trials showed genotypic variation for harvest index (HI), yield, temporal pattern of flowering and seed filling, temporal pattern of water uptake across crop cycle, and transpiration efficiency (TE) under terminal WS conditions. The mechanisms underlying the yield gain in the WS transgenic events under 2009GH trial was related to conserving water for the reproductive stage in RD7, and setting seeds early in RD10. Water conservation also led to a lower percentage of flower and pod abortion in both RD7 and RD10. Similarly, in the 2010GH trial, reduced water extraction during vegetative stage in events RD2, RD7 and RD9 was critical for better seed filling in the pods produced from late flowers in RD2, and reduced percentage of flower and pod abortion in RD2 and RD9. However, in the 2010F trial, the increased seed yield and HI in RD9 compared with C235 came along only with small changes in water uptake and podding pattern, probably not causal. Events RD2 (2010GH), RD7 (2010GH) and RD10 (2009GH) with higher seed yield also had higher TE than C235. The results suggest that DREB1A, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of several genes of abiotic stress response cascade, influenced the pattern of water uptake and flowering across the crop cycle, leading to reduction in the percentage of flower and pod abortion in the glasshouse trials
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