480 research outputs found

    C3S Micro-architectural Enhancement: Spike Encoder Block and Relaxing Gamma Clock (Asynchronous)

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    The field of neuromorphic computing is rapidly evolving. As both biological accuracy and practical implementations are explored, existing architectures are modified and improved for both purposes. The Temporal Neural Network(TNN) style of architecture is a good basis for approximating biological neurons due to its use of timed pulses to encode data and a voltage-threshold-like system. Using the Temporal Neural Network cortical column C3S architecture design as a basis, this project seeks to augment the network's design. This project takes note of two ideas and presents their designs with the goal of improving existing cortical column architecture. One need in this field is for an encoder that could convert between common digital formats and timed neuronal spikes, as biologically accurate networks are temporal in nature. To this end, this project presents an encoder to translate between binary encoded values and timed spikes to be processed by the neural network. Another need is for the reduction of wasted processing time to idleness, caused by lengthy Gamma cycle processing bursts. To this end, this project presents a relaxation of Gamma cycles to allow for them to end arbitrarily early once the network has determined an output response. With the goal of contributing to the betterment of the field of neuromorphic computer architecture, designs for both a binary-to-spike encoder, as well as a Gamma cycle controller, are presented and evaluated for optimal design parameters, with overall system gain and performance.Comment: 12 pages, 35 figures, 6 table

    Heterogeneous ALU Architecture -- Power Aware System

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    The advent of heterogeneous multi-core architectures brought with it huge benefits to energy efficiency by running programs on properly-sized cores. Modern heterogeneous multi-core systems as suggested by Artjom et al. schedule tasks to different cores based on governors that may optimize a task for energy use or performance. This provides benefits to the system as a whole in reducing energy costs where possible, but also not compromising on performance for timing-critical applications. In the era of dark silicon, energy optimization is increasingly important, and many architectures have arisen that seek to optimize processors to specific tasks, often at the cost of generality. We propose that we can still achieve energy-saving and potentially performance-improving benefits while not affecting a system's generality at all, by achieving heterogeneity at the level of Arithmetic logic unit (ALUs). Much like a heterogeneous multi-core system achieves benefits from its heterogeneity and efficient scheduling, a heterogeneous ALU system can achieve similar benefits by routing ALU operations to properly sized ALUs. Additionally much like there are scheduling modes for the governors of heterogeneous multi-core processors, we propose that energy-constrained modes can be effective in a heterogeneous ALU system with the routing of operations to smaller ALUs for immense energy savings. We examine the energy and performance characteristics of scaling ripple carry adders and evaluate the total energy and performance benefits of such a system when running applications. With our proposed controls, input operand size-based and energy constraint-based, we could potentially emulate the success of heterogeneous processor task scheduling at a finer-grained level. This paper presents our evaluation of the potential of heterogeneous ALU processors.Comment: 8 pages, 14 figures, 1 tabl

    Impact of Negative Interest Rate Policy on Emerging Asian markets: An Empirical Investigation

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    In last few years, several central banks have implemented negative interest rate policies (NIRP) to boost domestic economy. However, such policies may have some unintended consequences for the emerging Asian markets (EAMs). The objective of this paper is to provide an assessment of the domestic and global implications of negative interest rate policy. We also present how the implications differ from that of quantitative easing (QE). The analysis shows that the impact NIRP is heterogeneous; with differential impacts for big Asian economies (India and Indonesia) and small trade dependent economies (STDE) (Hong Kong, Philippines, South Korea, Singapore and Thailand). Nominal GDP and exports are adversely impacted in EMs in response to NIRP, especially in India and Indonesia. The inflation goes significantly high in EMs in response to plausible negative interest rates but the impact is much more severe for India and Indonesia than in STDEs. The local currencies also depreciate in all EAMs in response to negative interest rates. QE, on the other hand, has no significant impact on inflation but nominal GDP growth declines in EAMs. The currency appreciates and exports decline. The impact is much more severe in big emerging economies like India and Indonesia Key words: Negative interest rate policy, Quantitative easing, emerging economies JEL codes: E52, E58

    Real-space entanglement spectra of projected fractional quantum Hall states using Monte Carlo methods

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    Real-space entanglement spectrum (RSES) of a quantum Hall (QH) wavefunction gives a natural route to infer the nature of its edge excitations. Computation of RSES becomes expensive with an increase in the number of particles and included Landau levels (LL). RSES can be efficiently computed using Monte Carlo (MC) methods for trial states that can be written as products of determinants such as the composite fermion (CF) and parton states. This computational efficiency also applies to the RSES of lowest Landau level (LLL) projected CF and parton states; however, LLL projection to be used here requires approximations that generalize the Jain Kamilla (JK) projection. This work is a careful study of how this approximation should be made. We identify the approximation closest in spirit to JK projection and perform tests of the approximations involved in the projection by comparing the MC results with the RSES obtained from computationally expensive but exact methods. We present the techniques and use them to calculate the exact RSES of the exact LLL projected bosonic Jain 2/32/3 state in bipartition of systems of sizes up to N=24N=24 on the sphere. For the lowest few angular momentum sectors of the RSES, we present evidence to show that MC results closely match the exact spectra. We also discuss other plausible projection schemes. We also calculate the exact RSES of the unprojected fermionic Jain 2/52/5 state obtained from the exact diagonalization of the Trugman-Kivelson Hamiltonian in the two lowest LLs on the sphere. By comparing with the RSES of the unprojected 2/52/5 state from Monte Carlo methods, we show that the latter is practically exact
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