6 research outputs found

    A dynamic mode of mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors.

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    During mitosis, transcription is shut off, chromatin condenses, and most transcription factors (TFs) are reported to be excluded from chromosomes. How do daughter cells re-establish the original transcription program? Recent discoveries that a select set of TFs remain bound on mitotic chromosomes suggest a potential mechanism for maintaining transcriptional programs through the cell cycle termed mitotic bookmarking. Here we report instead that many TFs remain associated with chromosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells, and that the exclusion previously described is largely a fixation artifact. In particular, most TFs we tested are significantly enriched on mitotic chromosomes. Studies with Sox2 reveal that this mitotic interaction is more dynamic than in interphase and is facilitated by both DNA binding and nuclear import. Furthermore, this dynamic mode results from lack of transcriptional activation rather than decreased accessibility of underlying DNA sequences in mitosis. The nature of the cross-linking artifact prompts careful re-examination of the role of TFs in mitotic bookmarking

    Sexual dimorphism in melanocyte stem cell behavior reveals combinational therapeutic strategies for cutaneous repigmentation

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    Abstract Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disease caused by cutaneous melanocyte loss. Although phototherapy and T cell suppression therapy have been widely used to induce epidermal re-pigmentation, full pigmentation recovery is rarely achieved due to our poor understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing this process. Here, we identify unique melanocyte stem cell (McSC) epidermal migration rates between male and female mice, which is due to sexually dimorphic cutaneous inflammatory responses generated by ultra-violet B exposure. Using genetically engineered mouse models, and unbiased bulk and single-cell mRNA sequencing approaches, we determine that manipulating the inflammatory response through cyclooxygenase and its downstream prostaglandin product regulates McSC proliferation and epidermal migration in response to UVB exposure. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a combinational therapy that manipulates both macrophages and T cells (or innate and adaptive immunity) significantly promotes epidermal melanocyte re-population. With these findings, we propose a novel therapeutic strategy for repigmentation in patients with depigmentation conditions such as vitiligo