378 research outputs found

    Characteristics of Smoking Oncology Patients in a Community Cancer Center: A Study of Individual Differences

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    Cigarette smoking can seriously impede cancer treatment and leads to poorer treatment response. Fortunately, even when patients have cancer, smoking cessation has significant benefits. However, there have not been many successful well-controlled studies assessing smoking cessation interventions in oncology settings. The present study aimed to expand upon the current literature by exploring sample characteristics and individual differences in this understudied population. Data were collected from 649 adult participants at a mid-South community-based cancer center. Three measures were developed and subjected to factor analysis to assess level of health literacy, perceived stigma, and oncology-related triggers in this sample. These variables were then used as the dependent variables for three separate General Linear Models to determine whether scale scores varied by ethnicity, gender, smoking level, and whether the participant was a cancer survivor or currently in treatment. Each measure demonstrated adequate internal consistency and produced a single factor. Females were more likely than males to experience more smoking triggers when faced with cancer symptoms or treatments. Caucasians were more likely than African Americans, and lower level smokers were more likely than heavy smokers, to have higher health literacy. No individual differences were found within perceived stigma scores. Several implications of this research should be acknowledged. First, each scale demonstrated strong internal consistency in an oncology patient sample, making them appropriate for use in future research and confirming their utility in a clinical setting. Second, women were more likely than men to experience increased triggers to smoke when faced with oncology-related stress. They may need more support from medical and mental health staff to address cravings and to ensure their cigarette consumption does not increase. Third, smoking-related health literacy levels were high overall, indicating that patients are aware of the health consequences of smoking. However, these participants continued to smoke even though they realized that they are less likely to have successful treatment outcomes. Further, health literacy varied by both ethnicity and smoking level, but patients scored high on health literacy overall. This may indicate the need for motivational enhancement strategies to increase motivation to quit among African Americans and heavier smokers

    Street Outreach Workers: Best Practices and Lessons Learned

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    Street outreach workers are an important part of the Senator Charles E. Shannon Jr. Community Safety Initiative (CSI) comprehensive gang and youth violence reduction strategy in Massachusetts1. Street outreach involves the use of individuals to “work the streets,” making contact with youth in neighborhoods with high levels of gang activity. These individuals are generally not employed by the criminal justice system agencies but rather are based in community service organizations or other non- governmental agencies. Street outreach workers provide an important bridge between the community, gang-involved youth, and the agencies (whether social service or law enforcement) that respond to the problems of delinquency and gangs. This guide offers information, guidance, and lessons learned from street outreach programs nationally and within the Massachusetts Shannon CSI communities to help guide existing street outreach programs and support communities considering developing new street outreach programs

    Kakanjegawin, to know. Anishinawbe epistemology and education : a philosophic and holistic exploration of Anishinawbe approaches to knowledge and implications in education / by Amy Lynn Farrell.

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    Ttiis literature-based study explores the holistic and tradition-based Anishinawbe knowledge systems and what it means to know in the Anishinawbe sense. Several aspects of discussion include the source from which knowledge is attained, the manner in which knowledge is passed down through the generations, and how one can recognize that knowledge through various ways of knowing. Or, what does it mean to ‘know’ in a traditional Anishinawbe sense? Implications and the importance of Anishinawbe epistemology and culture in traditional Anishinawbe education are also discussed. This study is holistic in the same basis as that of the Anishinawbe knowledge system which is interconnected with all things. This provides some understanding of the complexities of this and provides insight to the roots of traditional Anishinawbe teachings and knowledge acquisition. Medicine wheel or Sacred circle information (leaf 11, leaf 33

    “When I Was Growing Up My Mother Cooked Dinner Every Single Day”: Fat Stigma and the Significance of Motherblame in Contemporary United States

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    Contemporary narratives about fatness focus incessantly on the mother, yet recent fat studies literature has only slightly addressed this phenomenon of motherblame and fat stigma. By extending the research that I touched upon in Fat Shame: Stigma and the Fat Body in American Culture (New York University Press, 2011), this essay explores the roots of motherblaming in early 20th century psychology -particularly in the work of Hilde Bruch and Phillip Wylie—and the connections to more recent narratives in US film, literature and popular culture that link mothers to the horrific spectacle of the fat child and fat mothers to the destruction of their families and communities

    Understanding the Organization, Operation, and Victimization Process of Labor Trafficking in the United States

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    This study examines the organization, operation, and victimization process of labor trafficking across multiple industries in the United States. It examines labor trafficking victim abuse and exploitation along a continuum, from victims' recruitment for work in the United States; through their migration experiences (if any), employment victimization experiences, and efforts to seek help; to their ultimate escape and receipt of services. Data for this study came from a sample of 122 closed labor trafficking victim service records from service providers in four US cities. In addition, interviews were conducted with labor trafficking survivors, local and federal law enforcement officials, legal advocates, and service providers in each site to better understand the labor trafficking victimization experience, the networks involved in labor trafficking and the escape and removal process, and the barriers to investigation and prosecution of labor trafficking cases

    The Prosecution of State-Level Human Trafficking Cases in the United States

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    In an effort to combat human trafficking, the United States federal government and all fifty states passed new laws that criminalise human trafficking and support the identification and prosecution of human trafficking perpetrators. Despite the passage of these laws, only a small number of human trafficking cases have been prosecuted in the last fifteen years. Guided by the notion that prosecutors seek to avoid uncertainty when making decisions to pursue criminal prosecution, we explore how human trafficking crimes are indicted under these newly defined state laws. Using a sample of cases from twelve US counties and interviews with police, prosecutors and court personnel, we examine the factors that influence the decision to prosecute crimes investigated as human trafficking in state court. This research informs our understanding of why so few human trafficking cases are prosecuted and why human trafficking suspects are rarely convicted of trafficking offenses

    Memengwaawid, to be a butterfly: an Indigenous exploration of Northwestern Ontario Anishinawbe and Muskego or Ininiw sacred stories and teachings in a contemporary novel

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    Among their capacities to entertain, to pass down cultural traditions, ceremonies, dances, songs, and to correct undesired behaviours, sacred stories explain how something in nature came to be and how our interactions with those creatures and other life forms around us lead into actions of established ceremonies of respect for the land and ourselves. Thus, from ceremonies and traditions, to codes of conduct and behaviour, to cultural spirituality and beliefs, sacred stories contain the history of Indigenous peoples. With this recorded history in mind, I ask: How are Anishinawbe and Cree sacred story lessons and lessons learned in one's own life journey connected through themes and issues, characters, and Seven Grandfather Teachings morals? With the intention to provide a method of understanding the Seven Grandfather Teachings, I blend the writing of morals into a personally influenced fictional story. I also draw upon theories of Indigenous ways of knowing to bring an understanding of relationships and connections to animals and land into the dissertation story. Concepts of Elders and roles of storytelling, and the oral tradition with connections to self and life are also discussed. I interweave all of these concepts in my theoretical framework into an Indigenous storytelling methodology through the use of an Indigenous story method. To elaborate, I refer to established Indigenous researchers including Jo-Ann Archibald (2008) and Margaret Kovach (2009) to describe how Indigenous storytelling informs and is a research methodology. I also discuss how structures and types of sacred story (Ellis, 1995) can create the foundation of an Indigenous story method. To inform my interpretation of sacred story characters as they appear in the dissertation story, including the characters of Weesquachak and Windigo, I combine the readings from literature in related fields (Indigenous education, Indigenous ways of knowing, Indigenous knowledge) as well as personal understandings gained from in-depth analyses of the sacred story characters. The analysis of sacred story characters includes discussion of character traits, any physical description drawn from sacred story, and actions and behaviours that inform the interpretation of the character and how they appear in the dissertation. This dissertation story is about a 16-year-old girl named Butterfly who, through a series of adventures with selected characters borrowed from sacred story, copes with many different life experiences during a fall semester in high school and learns some of the lessons often found in sacred story and the Seven Grandfather Teachings. A part of my own learning throughout my life and my time during the process of writing this dissertation is built into the dissertation novel: my growing sense of personal and cultural pride, and my strength as an Ojibwe woman
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