7 research outputs found


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    Systematics encompasses two more narrowly defined but highly interdependent fields. The first is taxonomy and the second field is phylogenetics. In modern systematics, taxonomy aims to reflect evolutionary history. The morphological traits of immature stages remain largely unresolved for a vast majority of the lepidopteran species worldwide, although they have potential to be applied in lepidopteran classification and systematic studies. The larval instars in Lepidoptera are signature examples of agricultural pests. The present study deals with SEM investigation of ultrastructure of different instars of two lepidopteran pest species i.e., Somena scintillans Walker 1856 and Trabala vishnou Lefebvre 1827. These findings will not only help in enriching taxonomic database but will also act as an aid for future studies aimed at devising pest control methods

    A Comparative Account of External Sculpture of the Eggs of Two Tiger-Moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae: Lepidoptera) from India

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    This study aimed to update the taxonomic data of two tiger moths which were earlier based upon the taxonomic characteristics of adult specimens only like male and female genitalic features. This study is an attempt to prove that the ultrastructural characteristics of the egg chorion of these tiger moth species are also important and they can be used in early taxonomic identifications of these species based on egg characteristics as they are also found to be species-specific. A scanning electron microscope was used to inspect, characterize and depict eggs of two species referable to Spilarctia Butler and Cladarctia Koda of the Erebidae family. The descriptions and comparative morphological analyses of the eggshells of Spilarctia multiguttata (Walker) and Cladarctia quadriramosa (Kollar) were compiled to present the structural complexity of these tiny eggs and depict the distinct patterns of structural features including the central micropylar pit, micropylar rosette, number of micropyles and aeropyles. The SEM analysis revealed their unique architecture which allows for unrestricted exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide while limiting water loss because of the presence of minute air pores all over the chorion. From the results, it is evident that the ultrastructural egg chorion characters are of great taxonomic value at specific as well as generic levels and these types of investigations must be amplified to improve and escalate the morphological personation of tiger moths

    Larval Development and Molting

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    The term larva applies to the young hatchling which varies from the grown up adult in possessing organs not present in the adult such as sex glands and associated parts. Insect development is of four types namely Ametabolous, Paurometabolous, Hemimetabolous and Holometabolous. The larvae appear in variety of forms and are termed as caterpillars, grubs or maggots in different insects groups. The larval development consists of series of stages in which each stage is separated from the next by a molt. It’s a complex process involving hormones, proteins and enzymes. Insects grow in increments. The molting is the process through which insects can routinely cast off their exoskeleton during specific times in their life cycle. The insect form in between two subsequent molts is termed as instar. The number of instars varies from 3 to 40 in different insect orders depending on the surrounding environmental and other conditions such as inheritance, sex, food quality and quantity. The larvae are categorized into four types namely Protopod larva, Polypod larva, Oligopod larva and Apodous larva

    Diversity, Importance and Decline of Pollinating Insects in Present Era

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    Pollination is a multi-million-year-old co-evolutionary process involving flowering plants and pollinators. It is one of the most important mechanisms in preservation and promotion of biodiversity as well as life on Earth. Pollinator diversity is essential for maintaining overall biological diversity in many habitats including agro-ecosystems. Pollinators are responsible for assisting reproduction in over 80% of the world’s flowering plants. In their absence, humans and wildlife would go hungry. Insects are the most efficient pollinators as they play a crucial part in pollination ecology. Pollinators and their habitats have ecological, economic, cultural and social benefits. Pollination efficiency is highly dependent on certain attributes and characteristics of pollinators such as vision, anatomy, food preferences, olfaction, behaviour and learning ability. With the rapid growth of human population, our demand for food has also risen. Our agricultural systems will need to produce more food in a sustainable manner in the future to cope with this. Pollinators play an important role in these ecosystems and will continue to do so in the future. Because pollinators are so important to agriculture, we need to learn more about which crops require specific pollinators and how to best maintain and promote both wild and controlled species. Their diversity needs protection because there are specific relationships between certain crops and pollinators. Pollinator communities are suffering as a result of man-made habitat disruptions, including severe biodiversity loss. This diversity must be protected by combining conservation measures with sustainable farming practices which could increase crop yields while protecting insect pollinator species

    Community Conservation

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    Floral and faunal diversity represents the health of an ecosystem. Increase in the number of endangered plants acts as an alarming sign of ecosystem’s imbalance. The ecological failure pose threat to our own health, thus by saving endangered species our own health is being saved. Government, non-profit international organizations, local communities and individuals are working together to protect and restore population levels. Biological Diversity Act (2002) for conservation of biodiversity is a landmark effort by Indian government as it provides mechanisms for knowledge, sustainable use of components of biological diversity and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological resources. The various awareness campaigns have been conducted for local communities with regard to the conservation of endangered species. Both in-situ (on site) and ex-situ (off site) conservation strategies target critical habitats under continuous threat of extinction. Conservation programmes that centred mainly on the local masses which completely depend upon the environment including forests, lakes and wildlife for their needs truly showcase the leadership of local and indigenous communities in protecting biodiversity. The rights of local communities in decision making must be recognized and supported through clear laws and regulations. Sacred groves, a legacy of prehistoric traditions of nature conservation act as an ideal centre for biodiversity conservation. Besides providing vital ecosystem services to people, these are of immense ecological significance. Community conservation is the need of the hour in terms of conserving biodiversity at ground level

    Potential Reasons for Insect Decline

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    Insects are the key component of world’s ecosystem and act as vital force to maintain life’s framework. But in present scenario, Insects are under multi-continental crisis apparent as reduction in abundance, diversity and biomass. The impact of decline is severe in areas which are highly impacted by human activities such as industrialized and agricultural landscapes. Habitat loss and degradation; intensive use of pesticides; pollution; introduction of invasive species and climate change are the most influential factors for their alarming decline and each factor is multifaceted. The accelerated decline in insect population can cause unpredictable negative consequences for the biosphere and is a matter of global concern that requires immediate and effective international collaborations. An urgent need is to identify the species at greatest threat; factors threatening their survival and finally the consequences of their loss. In order to maintain the integrity of managed and natural ecosystems, the protection of Insect diversity is critically important