728 research outputs found

    Duality in Quantum Field Theory (and String Theory)

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    These lectures give an introduction to duality in Quantum Field Theory. We discuss the phases of gauge theories and the implications of the electric-magnetic duality transformation to describe the mechanism of confinement. We review the exact results of N=1 supersymmetric QCD and the Seiberg-Witten solution of N=2 super Yang-Mills. Some of its extensions to String Theory are also briefly discussed.Comment: 38 pages, 7 figures, LaTeX, revtex, two references added. Based on a lectures delivered by L. A.-G. at `The Workshop on Fundamental Particles and Interactions', held in Vanderbilt University, and CERN-La Plata-Santiago de Compostela School of Physics, both in May 199

    De Rham Cohomology of the Supermanifolds and Superstring BRST Cohomology

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    We show that the BRST operator of Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond superstring is closely related to de Rham differential on the moduli space of decorated super-Riemann surfaces P. We develop formalism where superstring amplitudes are computed via integration of some differential forms over a section of P over the super moduli space M. We show that the result of integration does not depend on the choice of section when all the states are BRST physical. Our approach is based on the geometrical theory of integration on supermanifolds of which we give a short review.Comment: 6 page

    More On Critical Collapse of Axion-Dilaton System in Dimension Four

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    We complete our previous study of critical gravitational collapse in the axion-dilaton system by analysing the hyperbolic and parabolic ans\"atze. As could be expected, the corresponding Choptuik exponents in four-dimensions differ from the elliptic case.Comment: 13 pages, Latex file, no figure,v2: to appear in JCA

    Generalized Dirichlet Branes and Zero-modes

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    We investigate the effective dynamics of an arbitrary Dirichlet p-brane, in a path-integral formalism, by incorporating the massless excitations of closed string modes in open bosonic string theory. It is shown that the closed string background fields in the bosonic sector of type II theories induce invariant extrinsic curvature on the world-volume. In addition, the curvature can be seen to be associated with a divergence at the boundary of string world-sheet. The re-normalization of the collective coordinates, next to leading order in its derivative expansion, is performed to handle the divergence and the effective dynamics is encoded in Dirac-Born-Infeld action. Furthermore, the collective dynamics is generalized to include appropriate fermionic partners in type I super-string theory. The role of string modes is reviewed in terms of the collective coordinates and the gauge theory on the world-volume is argued to be non-local in presence of the U(1) invariant field strength.Comment: LaTex, 20 pages, v2: minor changes and added references v3:typos corrected, some statements are clarified in the context of zero-mode

    More on softly broken N=2 QCD

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    We extend previous work on the soft breaking of N=2N=2 supersymmetric QCD. We present the formalism for the breaking due to a dilaton spurion for a general gauge group and obtain the exact effective potential. We obtain some general features of the vacuum structure in the pure SU(N)SU(N) Yang-Mills theory and we also derive a general mass formula for this class of theories, in particular we present explicit results for the mass spectrum in the SU(2)SU(2) case. Finally we analyze the vacuum structure of the SU(2)SU(2) theory with one massless hypermultiplet. This theory presents dyon condensation and a first order phase transition in the supersymmetry breaking parameter driven by non-mutually local BPS states. This could be a hint of Argyres-Douglas-like phases in non-supersymmetric gauge theories.Comment: 35 pages, 9 Postscript figure

    Chiral Determinant as an Overlap of Two Vacua

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    The effective action induced by chiral fermions can be written, formally, as an overlap of two states. These states are the Fock ground states of Hamiltonians for fermions in even dimensional space with opposite sign mass terms coupled to identical static vector potentials. A perturbative analysis of the overlap in the continuum framework produces the correct anomaly for Abelian gauge fields in two dimensions. When a lattice transfer matrix formalism is applied in the direction perpendicular to a domain wall on which chiral fermions live a lattice version of the overlap is obtained. The real part of the overlap is nonperturbatively defined and previous work indicates that the real part of the vacuum polarization tensor in four dimensions has the correct continuum limit for a chiral theory. The phase of the overlap represents the imaginary part of the chiral action and suffers from ambiguities.Comment: 37p

    Beyond the String Genus

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    In an earlier work we used a path integral analysis to propose a higher genus generalization of the elliptic genus. We found a cobordism invariant parametrized by Teichmuller space. Here we simplify the formula and study the behavior of our invariant under the action of the mapping class group of the Riemann surface. We find that our invariant is a modular function with multiplier just as in genus one.Comment: 40 pages, 1 figur

    Topics in String Theory and Quantum Gravity

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    These are the lecture notes for the Les Houches Summer School on Quantum Gravity held in July 1992. The notes present some general critical assessment of other (non-string) approaches to quantum gravity, and a selected set of topics concerning what we have learned so far about the subject from string theory. Since these lectures are long (133 A4 pages), we include in this abstract the table of contents, which should help the user of the bulletin board in deciding whether to latex and print the full file. 1-FIELD THEORETICAL APPROACH TO QUANTUM GRAVITY: Linearized gravity; Supergravity; Kaluza-Klein theories; Quantum field theory and classical gravity; Euclidean approach to Quantum Gravity; Canonical quantization of gravity; Gravitational Instantons. 2-CONSISTENCY CONDITIONS: ANOMALIES: Generalities about anomalies; Spinors in 2n dimensions; When can we expect to find anomalies?; The Atiyah-Singer Index Theorem and the computation of anomalies; Examples: Green-Schwarz cancellation mechanism and Witten's SU(2) global anomaly. 3-STRING THEORY I. BOSONIC STRING: Bosonic string; Conformal Field Theory; Quantization of the bosonic string; Interaction in string theory and the characterization of the moduli space; Bosonic strings with background fields. Stringy corrections to Einstein equations; Toroidal compactifications. RR-duality; Operator formalism 4-STRING THEORY II. FERMIONIC STRINGS: Fermionic String; Heterotic String; Strings at finite temperature; Is string theory finite? 5-OTHER DEVELOPMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS: String ``Phenomenology''; Black Holes and Related SubjectsComment: 133 pages, 22 figures (not included, available upon request), LaTe

    Initial conditions for inflation and the energy scale of SUSY-breaking from the (nearly) gaussian sky

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    We show how general initial conditions for small field inflation can be obtained in multi-field models. This is provided by non-linear angular friction terms in the inflaton that provide a phase of non-slow-roll inflation before the slow-roll inflation phase. This in turn provides a natural mechanism to star small-field slow-roll at nearly zero velocity for arbitrary initial conditions. We also show that there is a relation between the scale of SUSY breaking sqrt (f) and the amount of non-gaussian fluctuations generated by the inflaton. In particular, we show that in the local non-gaussian shape there exists the relation sqrt (f) = 10^{13} GeV sqrt (f_NL). With current observational limits from Planck, and adopting the minimum amount of non-gaussian fluctuations allowed by single-field inflation, this provides a very tight constraint for the SUSY breaking energy scale sqrt (f) = 3-7 x 10^{13} GeV at 95% confidence. Further limits, or detection, from next year's Planck polarisation data will further tighten this constraint by a factor of two. We highlight that the key to our approach is to identify the inflaton with the scalar component of the goldstino superfield. This superfield is universal and implements the dynamics of SUSY breaking as well as superconformal breaking.Comment: Invited talk at the BW2013 meetin
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