30 research outputs found

    B Cell Multitasking Is Required to Control Nematode Infection

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    In this issue of Immunity, Wojciechowski et al. (2009) demonstrate that in addition to producing antibodies, B cells play pivotal roles in specific-antigen presentation and cytokine production for optimal T helper 2 responses required for protection against Heligmosomoides polygyrus

    APRIL:TACI axis is dispensable for the immune response to rabies vaccination.

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    There is significant need to develop a single-dose rabies vaccine to replace the current multi-dose rabies vaccine regimen and eliminate the requirement for rabies immune globulin in post-exposure settings. To accomplish this goal, rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines must rapidly activate B cells to secrete antibodies which neutralize pathogenic RABV before it enters the CNS. Increased understanding of how B cells effectively respond to RABV-based vaccines may improve efforts to simplify post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens. Several studies have successfully employed the TNF family cytokine a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) as a vaccine adjuvant. APRIL binds to the receptors TACI and B cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-expressed by B cells in various stages of maturation-with high affinity. We discovered that RABV-infected primary murine B cells upregulate APRIL ex vivo. Cytokines present at the time of antigen exposure affect the outcome of vaccination by influencing T and B cell activation and GC formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of APRIL at the time of RABV-based vaccine antigen exposure would support the generation of protective antibodies against RABV glycoprotein (G). In an effort to improve the response to RABV vaccination, we constructed and characterized a live recombinant RABV-based vaccine vector which expresses murine APRIL (rRABV-APRIL). Immunogenicity testing in mice demonstrated that expressing APRIL from the RABV genome does not impact the primary antibody response against RABV G compared to RABV alone. In order to evaluate the necessity of APRIL for the response to rabies vaccination, we compared the responses of APRIL-deficient and wild-type mice to immunization with rRABV. APRIL deficiency does not affect the primary antibody response to vaccination. Furthermore, APRIL expression by the vaccine did not improve the generation of long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells (PCs) as serum antibody levels were equivalent in response to rRABV-APRIL and the vector eight weeks after immunization. Moreover, APRIL is dispensable for the long-lived antibody-secreting PC response to rRABV vaccination as anti-RABV G IgG levels were similar in APRIL-deficient and wild-type mice six months after vaccination. Mice lacking the APRIL receptor TACI demonstrated primary anti-RABV G antibody responses similar to wild-type mice following immunization with the vaccine vector indicating that this response is independent of TACI-mediated signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that APRIL and associated TACI signaling is dispensable for the immune response to RABV-based vaccination

    B1b lymphocyte-derived antibodies control Borrelia hermsii independent of Fcα/μ receptor and in the absence of host cell contact.

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    The critical role of IgM in controlling pathogen burden has been demonstrated in a variety of infection models. In the murine model of Borrelia hermsii infection, IgM is necessary and sufficient for the rapid clearance of bacteremia. Convalescent, but not naïve, B1b cells generate a specific IgM response against B. hermsii, but the mechanism of IgM-mediated protection is unknown. Here, we show that neither Fcα/μR, a high-affinity receptor for IgM, nor IgM-dependent complement activation is required for controlling B. hermsii. Bacteria in diffusion chambers with a pore size impermeable to cells were killed when diffusion chambers were implanted into either convalescent or passively immunized mice. Furthermore, adoptively transferred convalescent B1b cells in Rag1(-/-) mice produced specific IgM that also cleared B. hermsii in diffusion chambers independent of complement. These results demonstrate that IgM-mediated clearance of B. hermsii does not require opsonophagocytosis and indicate that a mechanism for in vivo B1b cell-mediated protection is through the generation of bactericidal IgM

    The Lack of Natural IgM Increases Susceptibility and Impairs Anti-Vi Polysaccharide IgG Responses in a Mouse Model of Typhoid

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    Circulating IgM present in the body prior to any apparent Ag exposure is referred to as natural IgM. Natural IgM provides protective immunity against a variety of pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans. Because mice are not permissive to S. Typhi infection, we employed a murine model of typhoid using S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing the Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) of S. Typhi (S. Typhimurium strain RC60) to evaluate the role of natural IgM in pathogenesis. We found that natural mouse IgM binds to S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium. The severity of S. Typhimurium infection in mice is dependent on presence of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) allele; therefore, we infected mice deficient in secreted form of IgM (sIgM) on either a Nramp1-resistant (129S) or -susceptible (C57BL/6J) background. We found that the lack of natural IgM results in a significantly increased susceptibility and an exaggerated liver pathology regardless of the route of infection or the Nramp1 allele. Reconstitution of sIgM-/- mice with normal mouse serum or purified polyclonal IgM restored the resistance to that of sIgM+/+ mice. Furthermore, immunization of sIgM-/- mice with heat-killed S. Typhi induced a significantly reduced anti-ViPS IgG and complement-dependent bactericidal activity against S. Typhi in vitro, compared with that of sIgM+/+ mice. These findings indicate that natural IgM is an important factor in reducing the typhoid severity and inducing an optimal anti-ViPS IgG response to vaccination

    Attenuation of Relapsing Fever Neuroborreliosis in Mice by IL-17A Blockade

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    Relapsing fever due to Borrelia hermsiiis characterized by recurrent bacteremia episodes. However, infection of B. hermsii, if not treated early, can spread to various organs including the central nervous system (CNS). CNS disease manifestations are commonly referred to as relapsing fever neuroborreliosis (RFNB). In the mouse model of B. hermsiiinfection, we have previously shown that the development of RFNB requires innate immune cells as well as T cells. Here, we found that prior to the onset of RFNB, an increase in the systemic proinflammatory cytokine response followed by sustained levels of IP-10 concurrent with the CNS disease phase. RNA sequencing analysis of the spinal cord tissue during the disease phase revealed an association of the interleukin (IL)-17 signaling pathway in RFNB. To test a possible role for IL-17 inRFNB, we compared B. hermsii infection in wild-type and IL-17A2/2mice. Although the onset of bacteremia and protective anti-B. hermsii antibody responses occurred similarly, the blood-brain barrier permeability, proinflammatory cytokine levels, immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord, and RFNB manifestations were significantly diminished in IL-17A2/2mice compared to wild-type mice. Treatment of B. hermsii-infected wild-type mice with anti-IL-17A antibody ameliorated the severity of spinal cord inflammation, microglial cell activation, and RFNB. These data suggest that the IL-17signaling pathway plays a major role in the pathogenesis of RFNB, and IL-17A blockade may be a therapeutic modality for controlling neuroborreliosis

    Identification of Collaborative Cross Mouse Strains Permissive to Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi Infection

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    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever restricted to humans and does not replicate in commonly used inbred mice. Genetic variation in humans is far greater and more complex than that in a single inbred strain of mice. The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a large panel of recombinant inbred strains which has a wider range of genetic diversity than laboratory inbred mouse strains. We found that the CC003/Unc and CC053/Unc strains are permissive to intraperitoneal but not oral route of S. Typhi infection and show histopathological changes characteristic of human typhoid. These CC strains are immunocompetent, and immunization induces antigen-specific responses that can kill S. Typhi in vitro and control S. Typhi in vivo. Our results indicate that CC003/Unc and CC053/Unc strains can help identify the genetic basis for typhoid susceptibility, S. Typhi virulence mechanism(s) in vivo, and serve as a preclinical mammalian model system to identify effective vaccines and therapeutics strategies

    The ArcA regulon and oxidative stress resistance in Haemophilus influenzae

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    Haemophilus influenzae transits between niches within the human host that are predicted to differ in oxygen levels. The ArcAB two-component signal transduction system controls gene expression in response to respiratory conditions of growth and has been implicated in bacterial pathogenesis, yet the mechanism is not understood. We undertook a genome-scale study to identify genes of the H. influenzae ArcA regulon. Deletion of arcA resulted in increased anaerobic expression of genes of the respiratory chain and of H. influenzae's partial tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased anaerobic expression levels of genes of polyamine metabolism, and iron sequestration. Deletion of arcA also conferred a susceptibility to transient exposure to hydrogen peroxide that was greater following anaerobic growth than after aerobic growth. Array data revealed that the dps gene, not previously assigned to the ArcA modulon in bacteria, exhibited decreased expression in the arcA mutant. Deletion of dps resulted in hydrogen peroxide sensitivity and complementation restored resistance, providing insight into the previously uncharacterized mechanism of arcA-mediated H2O2 resistance. The results indicate a role for H. influenzae arcA and dps in pre-emptive defence against transitions from growth in low oxygen environments to aerobic exposure to hydrogen peroxide, an antibacterial oxidant produced by phagocytes during infection

    T-Cell-Independent Immune Responses Do Not Require Cxc Ligand 13-Mediated B1 Cell Migration▿ †

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    The dynamic movement of B cells increases the probability of encountering specific antigen and facilitates cell-cell interactions required for mounting a rapid antibody response. B1a and B1b cells are enriched in the coelomic cavity, contribute to T-cell-independent (TI) antibody responses, and increase in number upon antigen exposure. B1 cell movement is largely governed by Cxc ligand 13 (Cxcl13), and mice deficient in this chemokine have a severe reduction in peritoneal B1 cells. In this study, we examined the role of Cxcl13-dependent B cell migration using Borrelia hermsii infection or intraperitoneal immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide or 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl-acetyl (NP)-Ficoll, all of which induce robust antibody responses from B1b cells. Surprisingly, we found that antibody responses to B. hermsii or to FhbA, an antigenic target of B1b cells, and the resolution of bacteremia were indistinguishable between wild-type and Cxcl13−/− mice. Importantly, we did not observe an expansion of peritoneal B1b cell numbers in Cxcl13−/− mice. Nonetheless, mice that had resolved infection were resistant to reinfection, indicating that the peritoneal B1b cell reservoir is not required for controlling B. hermsii. Furthermore, despite a reduced peritoneal B1b compartment, immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine yielded comparable antigen-specific antibody responses in wild-type and Cxcl13−/− mice and conferred protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Likewise, immunization with NP-Ficoll elicited similar antibody responses in wild-type and Cxcl13−/− mice. These data demonstrate that homing of B1 cells into the coelomic cavity is not a requirement for generating protective TI antibody responses, even when antigen is initially localized to this anatomical compartment