3,268 research outputs found

    Visual Acuity does not Moderate Effect Sizes of Higher-Level Cognitive Tasks.

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    Background/study contextDeclining visual capacities in older adults have been posited as a driving force behind adult age differences in higher-order cognitive functions (e.g., the "common cause" hypothesis of Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994, Psychology and Aging, 9, 339-355). McGowan, Patterson, and Jordan (2013, Experimental Aging Research, 39, 70-79) also found that a surprisingly large number of published cognitive aging studies failed to include adequate measures of visual acuity. However, a recent meta-analysis of three studies (La Fleur and Salthouse, 2014, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1202-1208) failed to find evidence that visual acuity moderated or mediated age differences in higher-level cognitive processes. In order to provide a more extensive test of whether visual acuity moderates age differences in higher-level cognitive processes, we conducted a more extensive meta-analysis of topic.MethodsUsing results from 456 studies, we calculated effect sizes for the main effect of age across four cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, and perception/language) separately for five levels of visual acuity criteria (no criteria, undisclosed criteria, self-reported acuity, 20/80-20/31, and 20/30 or better).ResultsAs expected, age had a significant effect on each cognitive domain. However, these age effects did not further differ as a function of visual acuity criteria.ConclusionThe current meta-analytic, cross-sectional results suggest that visual acuity is not significantly related to age group differences in higher-level cognitive performance-thereby replicating La Fleur and Salthouse (2014). Further efforts are needed to determine whether other measures of visual functioning (e.g., contrast sensitivity, luminance) affect age differences in cognitive functioning

    Numerical study of resistivity of model disordered three-dimensional metals

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    We calculate the zero-temperature resistivity of model 3-dimensional disordered metals described by tight-binding Hamiltonians. Two different mechanisms of disorder are considered: diagonal and off-diagonal. The non-equilibrium Green function formalism provides a Landauer-type formula for the conductance of arbitrary mesoscopic systems. We use this formula to calculate the resistance of finite-size disordered samples of different lengths. The resistance averaged over disorder configurations is linear in sample length and resistivity is found from the coefficient of proportionality. Two structures are considered: (1) a simple cubic lattice with one s-orbital per site, (2) a simple cubic lattice with two d-orbitals. For small values of the disorder strength, our results agree with those obtained from the Boltzmann equation. Large off-diagonal disorder causes the resistivity to saturate, whereas increasing diagonal disorder causes the resistivity to increase faster than the Boltzmann result. The crossover toward localization starts when the Boltzmann mean free path relative to the lattice constant has a value between 0.5 and 2.0 and is strongly model dependent.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    Penobscot Valley Prudent Investment Linking Our Towns A Report on Education,Housing, and Capital Planning Opportunities

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    This report brings together three studies focusing on regional planning and public investment opportunities in the Greater Bangor area. These documents were completed as part of the Penobscot Valley Prudent Investments Linking Our Towns (PVPILOT) research project sponsored by the Eastern Maine Development Corporation and by the TCSP Pilot Program of the Federal Highway Administration. Our goal is to help advance the discussion of regional cooperative strategies in education, housing, and the provision of public services

    Quantum Electrical Dipole in Triangular Systems: a Model for Spontaneous Polarity in Metal Clusters

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    Triangular symmetric molecules with mirror symmetry perpendicular to the 3-fold axis are forbidden to have a fixed electrical dipole moment. However, if the ground state is orbitally degenerate and lacks inversion symmetry, then a ``quantum'' dipole moment does exist. The system of 3 electrons in D_3h symmetry is our example. This system is realized in triatomic molecules like Na_3. Unlike the fixed dipole of a molecule like water, the quantum moment does not point in a fixed direction, but lies in the plane of the molecule and takes quantized values +/- mu_0 along any direction of measurement in the plane. An electric field F in the plane leads to a linear Stark splitting +/- mu_0 F}. We introduce a toy model to study the effect of Jahn-Teller distortions on the quantum dipole moment. We find that the quantum dipole property survives when the dynamic Jahn-Teller effect is included, if the distortion of the molecule is small. Linear Stark splittings are suppressed in low fields by molecular rotation, just as the linear Stark shift of water is suppressed, but will be revealed in moderately large applied fields and low temperatures. Coulomb correlations also give a partial suppression.Comment: 10 pages with 7 figures included; thoroughly revised with a new coauthor; final minor change

    Mixed population of competing TASEPs with a shared reservoir of particles

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    We introduce a mean-field theoretical framework to describe multiple totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) with different lattice lengths, entry and exit rates, competing for a finite reservoir of particles. We present relations for the partitioning of particles between the reservoir and the lattices: these relations allow us to show that competition for particles can have non-trivial effects on the phase behavior of individual lattices. For a system with non-identical lattices, we find that when a subset of lattices undergoes a phase transition from low to high density, the entire set of lattice currents becomes independent of total particle number. We generalize our approach to systems with a continuous distribution of lattice parameters, for which we demonstrate that measurements of the current carried by a single lattice type can be used to extract the entire distribution of lattice parameters. Our approach applies to populations of TASEPs with any distribution of lattice parameters, and could easily be extended beyond the mean-field case.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figure

    Improving aerobic capacity in healthy older adults does not necessarily lead to improved cognitive performance.

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    The effects of aerobic exercise training in a sample of 85 older adults were investigated. Ss were assigned randomly to either an aerobic exercise group, a nonaerobic exercise (yoga) group, or a waiting-list control group. Following 16 weeks of the group-specific protocol, all of the older Ss received 16 weeks of aerobic exercise training. The older adults demonstrated a significant increase in aerobic capacity (cardiorespiratory fitness). Performance on reaction-time tests of attention and memory retrieval was slower for the older adults than for a comparison group of 24 young adults, and there was no improvement in the older adults ' performance on these tests as a function of aerobic exercise training. Results suggest that exercise-related changes in older adults ' cognitive performance are due either to extended periods of training or to cohort differences between physically active and sedentary individuals. Several parameters of cardiovascular functioning (e.g., maxi-mal heart rate, cardiac output, and left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise) typically exhibit a decline during later adulthood, even in the absence of overt coronary diseas

    Temperature dependence of the resistance of metallic nanowires (diameter \geq 15 nm): Applicability of Bloch-Gr\"{u}neisen theorem

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    We have measured the resistances (and resistivities) of Ag and Cu nanowires of diameters ranging from 15nm to 200nm in the temperature range 4.2K-300K with the specific aim to assess the applicability of the Bloch-Gr\"{u}neisen formula for electron phonon resistivity in these nanowires. The wires were grown within polymeric templates by electrodeposition. We find that in all the samples the resistance reaches a residual value at T=4.2K and the temperature dependence of resistance can be fitted to the Bloch-Gr\"{u}neisen formula in the entire temperature range with a well defined transport Debye temperature (ΘR\Theta_{R}). The value of Debye temperature obtained from the fits lie within 8% of the bulk value for Ag wires of diameter 15nm while for Cu nanowires of the same diameter the Debye temperature is significantly lesser than the bulk value. The electron-phonon coupling constants (measured by αelph\alpha_{el-ph} or αR\alpha_{R}) in the nanowires were found to have the same value as that of the bulk. The resistivities of the wires were seen to increase as the wire diameter was decreased. This increase in the resistivity of the wires may be attributed to surface scattering of conduction electrons. The specularity p was estimated to be about 0.5. The observed results allow us to obtain the resistivities exactly from the resistance and gives us a method of obtaining the exact numbers of wires within the measured array (grown within the template).Comment: 9 pages, 10 figure

    An analog computer study of hydraulic servomechanism nonlinearlities

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    Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering, 1954.Includes bibliographical references (p. 105-106).by Keith A. Erikson, William R. Greenwood, Philip J. Bonomo.M.S
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