74,668 research outputs found

    Different Melting Behavior in Pentane and Heptane Monolayers on Graphite; Molecular Dynamics Simulations

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    Molecular dynamics simulations are utilized to study the melting transition in pentane (C5H12) and heptane (C7H16), physisorbed onto the basal plane of graphite at near-monolayer coverages. Through use of the newest, optimized version of the anisotropic united-atom model (AUA4) to simulate both systems at two separate coverages, this study provides evidence that the melting transition for pentane and heptane monolayers are significantly different. Specifically, this study proposes a very rapid transition from the solid crystalline rectangular-centered (RC) phase to a fluid phase in pentane monolayers, whereas heptane monolayers exhibit a slower transition that involves a more gradual loss of RC order in the solid-fluid phase transition. Through a study of the melting behavior, encompassing variations where the formation of gauche defects in the alkyl chains are eliminated, this study proposes that this gradual melting behavior for heptane monolayers is a result of less orientational mobility of the heptane molecules in the solid RC phase, as compared to the pentane molecules. This idea is supported through a study of a nonane monolayer, which gives the gradual melting signature that heptane monolayers also seem to indicate. The results of this work are compared to previous experiment over pentane and heptane monolayers, and are found to be in good agreement

    The directional contact distance of two ellipsoids: Coarse-grained potentials for anisotropic interactions

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    Copyright @ 2005 American Institute of Physics.We obtain the distance of closest approach of the surfaces of two arbitrary ellipsoids valid at any orientation and separation measured along their intercenter vector. This directional distance is derived from the elliptic contact function. The geometric meaning behind this approach is clarified. An elliptic pair potential for modeling arbitrary mixtures of elliptic particles, whether hard or soft, is proposed based on this distance. Comparisons with Gay-Berne potentials are discussed. Analytic expressions for the forces and torques acting on the elliptic particles are given.This research has been supported by GlaxoSmith-Klin

    Some comments on Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods

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    We highlight some links between molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo algorithms used to simulate condensed matter systems. Special attention is paid to the question of sampling the desired statistical ensemble

    Novel crystal phase in suspensions of hard ellipsoids

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    We present a computer simulation study on the crystalline phases of hard ellipsoids of revolution. For aspect ratios greater than or equal to 3 the previously suggested stretched-fcc phase [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is replaced by a novel crystalline phase. Its unit cell contains two ellipsoids with unequal orientations. The lattice is simple monoclinic. The angle of inclination of the lattice, beta, is a very soft degree of freedom, while the two right angles are stiff. For one particular value of beta, the close-packed version of this crystal is a specimen of the family of superdense packings recently reported [Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255506 (2004)]. These results are relevant for studies of nucleation and glassy dynamics of colloidal suspensions of ellipsoids.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Behavior of rod-like polyelectrolytes near an oppositely charged surface

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    The behavior of highly charged short rod-like polyelectrolytes near oppositely charged planar surfaces is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed microstructural study, including monomer and fluid charge distribution, and chain orientation, is provided. The influence of chain length, substrate's surface-charge-density and image forces is considered. Due to the lower chain-entropy (compared to flexible chains), our simulation data show that rod-like polyelectrolytes can, in general, better adsorb than flexible ones do. Nonetheless, at low substrate-dielectric-constant, it is found that repulsive image forces tend to significantly reduce this discrepancy.Comment: Updated results - 19 pages - 10 figs - RevTex

    Key mechanistic features of swelling and blistering of helium-ion-irradiated tungsten

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    Helium-ion-induced swelling and blistering of single-crystal tungsten is investigated using a Helium Ion Microscope for site-specific dose-controlled irradiation (at 25 keV) with analysis by Helium Ion Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (cross-sectioning by Focused Ion Beam milling). We show that the blister cavity forms at a depth close to the simulated helium peak and that nanobubbles coalesce to form nanocracks within the envelope of the ion stopping range, swelling the blister shell. These results provide the first direct experimental evidence for the interbubble fracture mechanism proposed in the framework of the gas pressure model for blister formation

    An assessment of the newest magnetar-SNR associations

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    Anomalous X-ray Pulsars and Soft-Gamma Repeaters groups are magnetar candidates featuring low characteristic ages (τ=P2P˙\tau = {P\over{2 {\dot P}}}). At least some of them they should still be associated with the remnants of the explosive events in which they were born, giving clues to the type of events leading to their birth and the physics behind the apparent high value of the magnetar magnetic fields. To explain the high values of BB, a self-consistent picture of field growth also suggests that energy injection into the SNR is large and unavoidable, in contrast with the evolution of {\it conventional} SNR. This modified dynamics, in turn, has important implications for the proposed associations. We show that this scenario yields low ages for the new candidates CXOU J171405.7-381031/CTB 37B and XMMU J173203.3-344518/G353.6-0.7, and predicted values agree with recently found P˙{\dot P}, giving support to the overall picture.Comment: Contributed talk to the ASTRONS 2010 Conference, Cesme, Turkey, Aug. 2-6 201

    Molecular diffusion and slip boundary conditions at smooth surfaces with periodic and random nanoscale textures

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    The influence of periodic and random surface textures on the flow structure and effective slip length in Newtonian fluids is investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We consider a situation where the typical pattern size is smaller than the channel height and the local boundary conditions at wetting and nonwetting regions are characterized by finite slip lengths. In case of anisotropic patterns, transverse flow profiles are reported for flows over alternating stripes of different wettability when the shear flow direction is misaligned with respect to the stripe orientation. The angular dependence of the effective slip length obtained from MD simulations is in good agreement with hydrodynamic predictions provided that the stripe width is larger than several molecular diameters. We found that the longitudinal component of the slip velocity along the shear flow direction is proportional to the interfacial diffusion coefficient of fluid monomers in that direction at equilibrium. In case of random textures, the effective slip length and the diffusion coefficient of fluid monomers in the first layer near the heterogeneous surface depend sensitively on the total area of wetting regions.Comment: 30 pages, 11 figure

    Interoperability between Multimedia Collections for Content and Metadata-Based Searching

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    Artiste is a European project developing a cross-collection search system for art galleries and museums. It combines image content retrieval with text based retrieval and uses RDF mappings in order to integrate diverse databases. The test sites of the Louvre, Victoria and Albert Museum, Uffizi Gallery and National Gallery London provide their own database schema for existing metadata, avoiding the need for migration to a common schema. The system will accept a query based on one museum’s fields and convert them, through an RDF mapping into a form suitable for querying the other collections. The nature of some of the image processing algorithms means that the system can be slow for some computations, so the system is session-based to allow the user to return to the results later. The system has been built within a J2EE/EJB framework, using the Jboss Enterprise Application Server

    Understanding Legislator Experiences of Family-Friendly Working Practices in Political Institutions

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    This is a post-peer-review, pre-copy edit version of an article published in Politics and Gender. © 2015, Cambridge University Press