19 research outputs found

    Schematic representation of the expected release of TB antigens and consequential host antibody response upon initiation of treatment.

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    <p>We propose that measurement of these increased levels can be useful for diagnosing TB in a treat-to-test strategy.</p

    TB associated cytokines after 4 and 6 weeks of infection.

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    <p>IL-17 (<b>A</b>) and IL-6 (<b>B</b>) are significantly increased in the infected mice (open symbols) compared with uninfected mice (black symbols) at 4 weeks after infection. At 6 weeks post infection levels in all infected and non-infected mice were similar and around the detection limit for both cytokines. IFNγ (<b>C</b>), IP-10 (<b>D</b>)and MIG (<b>E</b>) are increased both at 4 and 6 weeks after infection compared to non-infected mice. As MIG levels were higher in all infected mice than in all uninfected mice except 1, at 6 weeks significance was not reached (p = 0.08). Levels of MCP-1 (<b>F</b>) were increased in infected mice at 4 weeks post infection compared to uninfected mice. At both 4 and 6 weeks post infection the range of MCP-1 levels was quite wide between both infected and uninfected mice and levels at 6 weeks were very similar between infected and uninfected mice. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001</p

    Changes in cytokine levels during TB treatment.

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    <p>IFNγ, IP-10, MIG and MCP-1 levels were measured in infected (left hand panels, A, C, E, G) and non-infected (right hand panels, B, D, F, H) mice before (black squares) and after 3, 7, and 21 days of treatment with RIF+INH (open circles) or placebo (black circles). In the infected groups within 7–21 days of treatment with RIF+INH levels of all 4 cytokines were lower compared to placebo treated mice. In the non-infected mice no differences in levels were seen between different treatments or time points. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001</p

    Growth of strains H37Ra and HR1 in the presence of RIF.

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    <p>Microcolonies of RIF susceptible strain H37Ra and resistant strain HR1 were grown without RIF for 7 days, then moved to fresh agar with or without RIF from day 7 onwards. A, C: Averaged sizes of H37Ra (A) and HR1 (C) colonies incubated with (open symbols) and without RIF (closed symbols). Average colony size is plotted; bars indicate ±1 standard deviation of measured colony sizes. A statistically significant difference (indicated by an asterisk (*), p<0.001) between the groups at day 7 and 8 (unpaired T-test) was found between H37Ra with and without RIF at day 8. B: Growth rate of individual H37Ra (B) and HR1 (D) colonies incubated with (white bars) and without (black bars) RIF. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired T-test on colony growth between day 6 and day 7, and day 6 and day 8. Statistical significance is indicated by an asterisk (*; p<0.001). Although there is a statistically significant difference between the growth rate of HR1 at day 6 and 7 in the presence of RIF, the change in growth rate is so small compared to the sensitive strain that we consider this effect irrelevant.</p

    Colony formation on PAO.

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    <p>A–D; H37Ra cultured for 1, 2, 3 and 7 days on PAO were fixed and stained with Nile Red and examined with a 40X objective using fluorescent epi-illumination. Representative microcolonies for each time point are shown.</p

    Growth of mixed strains H37Ra and HR1 in the presence of RIF.

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    <p>Microcolonies of mixed cultures of H37Ra and HR1 were grown without RIF for 7 days, then moved to fresh agar with or without RIF from day 7 onwards. A: Average colony sizes of total mixed population incubated with (▪) and without (□) RIF. Average colony size is plotted; bars indicate ±1 standard deviation of measured colony sizes. B, C: Distribution of growth rates (% increase/day) at day 7 (B) and 8 (C) of the total mixed population without RIF exposure. D, E: Distribution of growth rates (% increase/day) at day 7 (D) and 8 (E) of the total mixed population after RIF exposure. In E the vertical dashed line indicates the cut-off value (25%) for growth defined on basis of measured growth rate at day 8. F: Averaged colony sizes of the mixed population with RIF separated into the growing (RIF resistant, black line) and non-growing (RIF susceptible, grey line) populations on basis of the cut-off value shown in E. Average colony size is plotted; bars indicate ±1 standard deviation of measured colony sizes. For reference, data for the complete mixed population is indicated by the dashed line.</p

    Serum IFNγ levels of TB patients at day 0 and day 7 of therapy.

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    <p>See legend <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0129552#pone.0129552.g002" target="_blank">Fig 2</a> for details on the panels and labels. For culture/GeneXpert positive patients p<0.001 between day 0 and day 7. For culture/GeneXpert negative patients p<0.05 between day 0 and 7.</p
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