31 research outputs found

    Coding Theorems for Quantum Channels

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    The more than thirty years old issue of the (classical) information capacity of quantum communication channels was dramatically clarified during the last years, when a number of direct quantum coding theorems was discovered. The present paper gives a self contained treatment of the subject, following as much in parallel as possible with classical information theory and, on the other side, stressing profound differences of the quantum case. An emphasis is made on recent results, such as general quantum coding theorems including cases of infinite (possibly continuous) alphabets and constrained inputs, reliability function for pure state channels and quantum Gaussian channel. Several still unsolved problems are briefly outlined.Comment: 41 pages, Latex, eps figure. Extended version of report appeared in "Tamagawa University Research Review", no. 4, 199

    The optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

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    A generic quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. Here, the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multi-mode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed both for mixed and pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation. In particular, for the case of pure environment we compute this quantity and present an explicit unitary dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results considerably simplify the characterization of these continuous-variable maps and can be applied to address some open issues concerning the transmission of information encoded in bosonic systems.Comment: 9 page

    Quantum state majorization at the output of bosonic Gaussian channels

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    Quantum communication theory explores the implications of quantum mechanics to the tasks of information transmission. Many physical channels can be formally described as quantum Gaussian operations acting on bosonic quantum states. Depending on the input state and on the quality of the channel, the output suffers certain amount of noise. For a long time it has been conjectured, but never proved, that output states of Gaussian channels corresponding to coherent input signals are the less noisy ones (in the sense of a majorization criterion). In this work we prove this conjecture. Specifically we show that every output state of a phase insensitive Gaussian channel is majorized by the output state corresponding to a coherent input. The proof is based on the optimality of coherent states for the minimization of strictly concave output functionals. Moreover we show that coherent states are the unique optimizers.Comment: 7 pages, 1 figure. Published versio

    The semigroup structure of Gaussian channels

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    We investigate the semigroup structure of bosonic Gaussian quantum channels. Particular focus lies on the sets of channels which are divisible, idempotent or Markovian (in the sense of either belonging to one-parameter semigroups or being infinitesimal divisible). We show that the non-compactness of the set of Gaussian channels allows for remarkable differences when comparing the semigroup structure with that of finite dimensional quantum channels. For instance, every irreversible Gaussian channel is shown to be divisible in spite of the existence of Gaussian channels which are not infinitesimal divisible. A simpler and known consequence of non-compactness is the lack of generators for certain reversible channels. Along the way we provide new representations for classes of Gaussian channels: as matrix semigroup, complex valued positive matrices or in terms of a simple form describing almost all one-parameter semigroups.Comment: 20 page

    Bosonic quantum communication across arbitrarily high loss channels

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    A general attenuator Φλ,σ\Phi_{\lambda, \sigma} is a bosonic quantum channel that acts by combining the input with a fixed environment state σ\sigma in a beam splitter of transmissivity λ\lambda. If σ\sigma is a thermal state the resulting channel is a thermal attenuator, whose quantum capacity vanishes for λ1/2\lambda\leq 1/2. We study the quantum capacity of these objects for generic σ\sigma, proving a number of unexpected results. Most notably, we show that for any arbitrary value of λ>0\lambda>0 there exists a suitable single-mode state σ(λ)\sigma(\lambda) such that the quantum capacity of Φλ,σ(λ)\Phi_{\lambda,\sigma(\lambda)} is larger than a universal constant c>0c>0. Our result holds even when we fix an energy constraint at the input of the channel, and implies that quantum communication at a constant rate is possible even in the limit of arbitrarily low transmissivity, provided that the environment state is appropriately controlled. We also find examples of states σ\sigma such that the quantum capacity of Φλ,σ\Phi_{\lambda,\sigma} is not monotonic in λ\lambda. These findings may have implications for the study of communication lines running across integrated optical circuits, of which general attenuators provide natural models.Comment: 28 pages, 4 figures; v2 is very close to the published version. In the SM we added Section I.D, on the comparison between quantum communication and non-locality distribution, and Section V, where we discuss a possible extension of our main result (Thm. 2