115 research outputs found

    Microbial colonization and ureteral stent-associated storage lower urinary tract symptoms: the forgotten piece of the puzzle?

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    Purpose: Ureteral stents are frequently associated with side effects. Most patients suffer from storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Storage LUTS are commonly attributed to the irritation of the trigone, smooth muscle spasm or a combination of factors. The relationship between microbial ureteral stent colonization (MUSC) and de novo or worsening storage LUTS has not been investigated yet. Methods: Five hundred ninety-one polyurethane ureteral stents from 275 male and 153 female patients were prospectively evaluated. The removed stents were sonicated to dislodge adherent microorganisms. Urine flow cytometry was performed to detect pyuria. A standardized urinary symptom questionnaire was given to all patients. Results: Thirty-five per cent of male and 28% of female cases showed de novo or worsened storage LUTS. MUSC was more common in patients with storage LUTS compared to patients without storage LUTS (men: 26 vs. 13%, respectively, P<0.05; women: 63 vs. 48%, respectively, P=0.13). Pyuria was significantly more common in patients with storage LUTS compared to patients without storage LUTS (men: 55 vs. 40%, respectively, P<0.05; women: 70 vs. 45%, respectively, P<0.05). No significant correlation was observed between the detected genera of microorganisms and storage LUTS. Conclusions: Our data show a significant association between MUSC- and stent-related de novo experienced or worsened storage LUTS in men. The incidence of MUSC is most common in both female and male patients with storage LUTS and accompanying pyuria. In these patients, a combination of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs may be regarded as treatment optio

    Patient-Reported Side Effects of Intradetrusor Botulinum Toxin Type A for Idiopathic Overactive Bladder Syndrome

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    Objective: The aim of the study was a prospective assessment of patient-reported side effects in an open-label study after intradetrusor botulinum toxin injections for idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). Patients and Methods: Botulinum toxin A injection was performed in 56 patients with idiopathic OAB. Patients were followed up for 6 months concerning side effects and patients' satisfaction. Results: Different types of side effects were assessed such as dry mouth (19.6%), arm weakness (8.9%), eyelid weakness (8.9%), leg weakness (7.1%), torso weakness (5.4%), impaired vision (5.4%) and dysphagia (5.4%). In all cases, symptoms were mild and transient. Urological complications such as gross hematuria (17.9%), acute urinary retention (8.9%) and acute urinary tract infection (7.1%) were noticed. In all cases, acute urinary retention was transient and treated with temporary intermittent self-catheterization. There was no statistically significant correlation between dosage and observed side effects. Patients' satisfaction rate was high (71.4%). Conclusion: Intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin was associated with a high rate of neurourological side effects. In general, side effects were transient, mild and did not require special treatment. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Base

    A comparative assessment of prostate positioning guided by three-dimensional ultrasound and cone beam CT

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    Background: The accuracy of the Elekta Clarity (TM) three-dimensional ultrasound system (3DUS) was assessed for prostate positioning and compared to seed-and bone-based positioning in kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during a definitive radiotherapy. Methods: The prostate positioning of 6 patients, with fiducial markers implanted into the prostate, was controlled by 3DUS and CBCT. In total, 78 ultrasound scans were performed trans-abdominally and compared to bone-matches and seed-matches in CBCT scans. Setup errors detected by the different modalities were compared. Systematic and random errors were analysed, and optimal setup margins were calculated. Results: The discrepancy between 3DUS and seed-match in CBCT was -0.2 +/- 2.7 mm laterally,-1.9 +/- 2.3 mm longitudinally and 0.0 +/- 3.0 mm vertically and significant only in longitudinal direction. Using seed-match as reference, systematic errors of 3DUS were 1.3 mm laterally, 0.8 mm longitudinally and 1.4 mm vertically, and random errors were 2.5 mm laterally, 2.3 mm longitudinally, and 2.7 mm vertically. No significant difference could be detected for 3DUS in comparison to bone-match in CBCT. Conclusions: 3DUS is feasible for image guidance for patients with prostate cancer and appears comparable to CBCT based image guidance in the retrospective study. While 3DUS offers some distinct advantages such as no need of invasive fiducial implantation and avoidance of extra radiation, its disadvantages include the operator dependence of the technique and dependence on sufficient bladder filling. Further study of 3DUS for image guidance in a large patient cohort is warranted

    Impact of the 'Repositioning Test' on Postoperative Outcome of Retroluminar Transobturator Male Sling Implantation

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the value of the ‘repositioning test’ (RT) in preoperative patient selection for the efficacy of male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) treatment using a retroluminar transobturator male sling (AdVance sling). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 65 consecutive patients with SUI after radical prostatectomy were included in this singlecenter prospective study. Preoperatively, patients were classified into those with ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ RT. Postoperative results were analyzed and the association between the result of the RT and postoperative outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: 53 patients (81.5%) showed preoperatively a positive RT and 12 patients (18.5%) a negative RT. After a followup of 12 months, patients with positive RT showed a cure rate (0 pads/day) of 83% and patients with a negative RT showed only a cure rate of 25%. A positive RT significantly correlated with cure in outcome (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with positive RT have a significantly better hance for successful AdVance sling implantation. The RT is minimally invasive, easy to learn and easy to perform. Therefore, the RT is a very useful tool for preoperative patient selection

    Effects of alirocumab on types of myocardial infarction: insights from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial

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    Aims  The third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) Task Force classified MIs into five types: Type 1, spontaneous; Type 2, related to oxygen supply/demand imbalance; Type 3, fatal without ascertainment of cardiac biomarkers; Type 4, related to percutaneous coronary intervention; and Type 5, related to coronary artery bypass surgery. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction with statins and proprotein convertase subtilisin–kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduces risk of MI, but less is known about effects on types of MI. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and elevated LDL-C (≥1.8 mmol/L) despite intensive statin therapy. In a pre-specified analysis, we assessed the effects of alirocumab on types of MI. Methods and results  Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Myocardial infarction types were prospectively adjudicated and classified. Of 1860 total MIs, 1223 (65.8%) were adjudicated as Type 1, 386 (20.8%) as Type 2, and 244 (13.1%) as Type 4. Few events were Type 3 (n = 2) or Type 5 (n = 5). Alirocumab reduced first MIs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.95; P = 0.003], with reductions in both Type 1 (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77–0.99; P = 0.032) and Type 2 (0.77, 0.61–0.97; P = 0.025), but not Type 4 MI. Conclusion  After ACS, alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy favourably impacted on Type 1 and 2 MIs. The data indicate for the first time that a lipid-lowering therapy can attenuate the risk of Type 2 MI. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below levels achievable with statins is an effective preventive strategy for both MI types.For complete list of authors see http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz299</p

    Traveling waves and pattern formation for spatially discrete bistable reaction-diffusion equations (survey)

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    Analysis and Stochastic

    Effect of alirocumab on mortality after acute coronary syndromes. An analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial

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    Background: Previous trials of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9) inhibitors demonstrated reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events, but not death. We assessed the effects of alirocumab on death after index acute coronary syndrome. Methods: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) was a double-blind, randomized comparison of alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients who had an ACS 1 to 12 months previously and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy. Alirocumab dose was blindly titrated to target achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) between 25 and 50 mg/dL. We examined the effects of treatment on all-cause death and its components, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death, with log-rank testing. Joint semiparametric models tested associations between nonfatal cardiovascular events and cardiovascular or noncardiovascular death. Results: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Death occurred in 334 (3.5%) and 392 (4.1%) patients, respectively, in the alirocumab and placebo groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98; P=0.03, nominal P value). This resulted from nonsignificantly fewer cardiovascular (240 [2.5%] vs 271 [2.9%]; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05; P=0.15) and noncardiovascular (94 [1.0%] vs 121 [1.3%]; HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.01; P=0.06) deaths with alirocumab. In a prespecified analysis of 8242 patients eligible for ≥3 years follow-up, alirocumab reduced death (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients with nonfatal cardiovascular events were at increased risk for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths (P<0.0001 for the associations). Alirocumab reduced total nonfatal cardiovascular events (P<0.001) and thereby may have attenuated the number of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths. A post hoc analysis found that, compared to patients with lower LDL-C, patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L) had a greater absolute risk of death and a larger mortality benefit from alirocumab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.90; Pinteraction=0.007). In the alirocumab group, all-cause death declined wit h achieved LDL-C at 4 months of treatment, to a level of approximately 30 mg/dL (adjusted P=0.017 for linear trend). Conclusions: Alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy has the potential to reduce death after acute coronary syndrome, particularly if treatment is maintained for ≥3 years, if baseline LDL-C is ≥100 mg/dL, or if achieved LDL-C is low. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402
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