167 research outputs found

    Line emission from gamma-ray burst environments

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    The time and angle dependent line and continuum emission from a dense torus around a cosmological gamma-ray burst source is simulated, taking into account photoionization, collisional ionization, recombination, and electron heating and cooling due to various processes. The importance of the hydrodynamical interaction between the torus and the expanding blast wave is stressed. Due to the rapid deceleration of the blast wave as it interacts with the dense torus, the material in the torus will be illuminated by a drastically different photon spectrum than observable through a low-column-density line of sight, and will be heated by the hydrodynamical interaction between the blast wave and the torus. A model calculation to reproduce the Fe K-alpha line emission observed in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 970508 is presented. The results indicate that ~ 10^{-4} solar masses of iron must be concentrated in a region of less than 10^{-3} pc. The illumination of the torus material due to the hydrodynamic interaction of the blast wave with the torus is the dominant heating and ionization mechanism leading to the formation of the iron line. These results suggest that misaligned GRBs may be detectable as X-ray flashes with pronounced iron emission line features.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ. Updated recombination rate data; discussion on element abundances added; references update

    Abundances and Physical Conditions in the Interstellar Gas toward HD 192 639

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    We present a study of the abundances and physical conditions in the interstellar gas toward the heavily reddened star HD 192639 [E_(B-V) = 0.64], based on analysis of FUSE and HST/STIS spectra covering the range from 912 to 1361 A. This work constitutes a survey of the analyses that can be performed to study the interstellar gas when combining data from different instruments. Low-velocity (-18 to -8 km/s) components are seen primarily for various neutral and singly ionized species such as C I, O I, S I, Mg II, Cl I, Cl II, Mn II, Fe II and Cu II. Numerous lines of H2 are present in the FUSE spectra, with a kinetic temperature for the lowest rotational levels T_(01) = (90 +/- 10) K. Analysis of the C I fine-structure excitation implies an average local density of hydrogen n_H = (16 +/- 3) cm^-3. The average electron density, derived from five neutral/first ion pairs under the assumption of photoionization equilibrium, is n_e = (0.11 +/- 0.02) cm^-3. The relatively complex component structure seen in high-resolution spectra of K I and Na I, the relatively low average density, and the measured depletions all suggest that the line of sight contains a number of diffuse clouds, rather than a single dense, translucent cloud. Comparisons of the fractions of Cl in Cl I and of hydrogen in molecular form suggest a higher molecular fraction, in the region(s) where H2 is present, than that derived considering the average line of sight. In general, such comparisons may allow the identification and characterization of translucent portions of such complex lines of sight. The combined data also show high-velocity components near -80 km/s for various species which appear to be predominantly ionized, and may be due to a radiative shock. A brief overview of the conditions in this gas will be given.Comment: 37 pages, accepted for publication in Ap

    Torsion and the Gravitational Interaction

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    By using a nonholonomous-frame formulation of the general covariance principle, seen as an active version of the strong equivalence principle, an analysis of the gravitational coupling prescription in the presence of curvature and torsion is made. The coupling prescription implied by this principle is found to be always equivalent with that of general relativity, a result that reinforces the completeness of this theory, as well as the teleparallel point of view according to which torsion does not represent additional degrees of freedom for gravity, but simply an alternative way of representing the gravitational field.Comment: Version 2: minor presentation changes, a reference added, 11 pages (IOP style

    Non-singular inflation with vacuum decay

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    On the basis of a semi-classical analysis of vacuum energy in an expanding spacetime, we describe a non-singular cosmological model in which the vacuum density decays with time, with a concomitant production of matter. During an infinitely long period we have an empty, inflationary universe, with H \approx 1. This primordial era ends in a fast phase transition, during which H and \Lambda decrease to nearly zero in a few Planck times, with release of a huge amount of radiation. The late-time scenario is similar to the standard model, with the radiation phase followed by a long dust era, which tends asymptotically to a de Sitter universe, with vacuum dominating again. An analysis of the redshift-distance relation for supernovas Ia leads to cosmological parameters in agreement with other current estimations.Comment: Work presented at IRGAC 2006, Barcelona, July 11-15 2006. To appear in a special issue of Journal of Physics

    Radiative recombination data for modeling dynamic finite-density plasmas

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    We have calculated partial final-state resolved radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficients from the initial ground and metastable levels of all elements up to and including Zn, plus Kr, Mo, and Xe, for all isoelectronic sequences up to Na-like forming Mg-like. The data are archived according to the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) data class adf48, which spans a temperature range of z2(101-107) K, where z is the initial ion charge. Fits to total rate coefficients have been determined, for both the ground and metastable levels, and those for the ground are presented here. Comparison is made both with previous RR rate coefficients and with (background) R-matrix photoionization cross sections. This RR database complements a dielectronic recombination (DR) database already produced, and both are being used to produce updated ionization balances for both (electron) collisionally ionized and photoionized plasmas

    Evidence for a Physically Compact Narrow-Line Region in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548

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    We have combined HST/FOS and ground-based spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 to study the narrow emission lines over the 1200 -- 10,000 angstrom region. All of the spectra were obtained when the broad emission line and continuum fluxes were at an historic low level, allowing us to accurately determine the contribution of the narrow-line region (NLR) to the emission lines. We have generated multicomponent photoionization models to investigate the relative strength of the high ionization lines compared to those in Seyfert 2 galaxies, and the weakness of the narrow Mg II 2800 line. We present evidence for a high ionization component of NLR gas that is very close to the nucleus (~1 pc). This component must be optically thin to ionizing radiation at the Lyman edge (tau = 2.5) to avoid producing [O I] and Mg II in a partially ionized zone. The very high ionization lines (N V, [Ne V], [Fe VII], [Fe X]) are stronger than the predictions of our standard model, and we show that this may be due to supersolar abundances and/or a ``blue bump'' in the extreme ultraviolet (although recent observations do not support the latter). An outer component of NLR gas (at only ~70 pc from the continuum source) is needed to produce the low ionization lines. We show that the outer component may contain dust, which further reduces the Mg II flux by depletion and by absorption of the resonance photons after multiple scatterings. We show that the majority of the emission in the NLR of NGC 5548 must arise within about ~70 pc from the nucleus. Thus, the NLR in this Seyfert 1 galaxy is very physically compact, compared to the typical NLR in Seyfert 2 galaxies.Comment: 38 pages, Latex, includes 2 figures (postscript), to appear in Ap

    (In)finite extensions of algebras from their Inonu-Wigner contractions

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    The way to obtain massive non-relativistic states from the Poincare algebra is twofold. First, following Inonu and Wigner the Poincare algebra has to be contracted to the Galilean one. Second, the Galilean algebra is to be extended to include the central mass operator. We show that the central extension might be properly encoded in the non-relativistic contraction. In fact, any Inonu-Wigner contraction of one algebra to another, corresponds to an infinite tower of abelian extensions of the latter. The proposed method is straightforward and holds for both central and non-central extensions. Apart from the Bargmann (non-zero mass) extension of the Galilean algebra, our list of examples includes the Weyl algebra obtained from an extension of the contracted SO(3) algebra, the Carrollian (ultra-relativistic) contraction of the Poincare algebra, the exotic Newton-Hooke algebra and some others. The paper is dedicated to the memory of Laurent Houart (1967-2011).Comment: 7 pages, revtex style; v2: Minor corrections, references added; v3: Typos correcte

    Where Are the Baryons? III: Non-Equilibrium Effects and Observables

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    Numerical simulations of the intergalactic medium have shown that at the present epoch a significant fraction (40-50%) of the baryonic component should be found in the (T~10^6K) Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) - with several recent observational lines of evidence indicating the validity of the prediction. We here recompute the evolution of the WHIM with the following major improvements: (1) galactic superwind feedback processes from galaxy/star formation are explicitly included; (2) major metal species (O V to O IX) are computed explicitly in a non-equilibrium way; (3) mass and spatial dynamic ranges are larger by a factor of 8 and 2, respectively, than in our previous simulations. We find: (1) non-equilibrium calculations produce significantly different results from ionization equilibrium calculations. (2) The abundance of O VI absorption lines based on non-equilibrium simulations with galactic superwinds is in remarkably good agreement with latest observations, implying the validity of our model, while the predicted abundances for O VII and O VIII absorption lines appear to be lower than observed but the observational errorbars are currently very large. The expected abundances for O VI (as well as Lyman alpha), O VII and O VIII absorption systems are in the range 50-100 per unit redshift at EW=1km/s decreasing to 10-20 per unit redshift at EW=10km/s. The number of O VI absorption lines with EW>100km/s is very small, while there are about 1-3 lines per unit redshift for O VII and O VIII absorption lines at EW=100km/s. (3) Emission lines, primarily O VI and \lya in the UV and O VII and O VIII in the soft X-rays are potentially observable by future missions. The number of emission lines per unit redshift that may be detectable by planned UV and soft X-ray missions are in the order of 0.1-1.Comment: submitted to ApJ, 52 pages, 27 figures, high res version at http://www.astro.princeton.edu/~cen/baryonIII.ps.g

    Atomic Diagnostics of X-ray Irradiated Protoplanetary Disks

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    We study atomic line diagnostics of the inner regions of protoplanetary disks with our model of X-ray irradiated disk atmospheres which was previously used to predict observable levels of the NeII and NeIII fine-structure transitions at 12.81 and 15.55mum. We extend the X-ray ionization theory to sulfur and calculate the fraction of sulfur in S, S+, S2+ and sulfur molecules. For the D'Alessio generic T Tauri star disk, we find that the SI fine-structure line at 25.55mum is below the detection level of the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), in large part due to X-ray ionization of atomic S at the top of the atmosphere and to its incorporation into molecules close to the mid-plane. We predict that observable fluxes of the SII 6718/6732AA forbidden transitions are produced in the upper atmosphere at somewhat shallower depths and smaller radii than the neon fine-structure lines. This and other forbidden line transitions, such as the OI 6300/6363AA and the CI 9826/9852AA lines, serve as complementary diagnostics of X-ray irradiated disk atmospheres. We have also analyzed the potential role of the low-excitation fine-structure lines of CI, CII, and OI, which should be observable by SOFIA and Herschel.Comment: Accepted by Ap
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