196 research outputs found

    Lyfe-cycle effects on household expenditures: A latent-variable approach

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    Using data from the Spanish household budget survey, we investigate life- cycle effects on several product expenditures. A latent-variable model approach is adopted to evaluate the impact of income on expenditures, controlling for the number of members in the family. Two latent factors underlying repeated measures of monetary and non-monetary income are used as explanatory variables in the expenditure regression equations, thus avoiding possible bias associated to the measurement error in income. The proposed methodology also takes care of the case in which product expenditures exhibit a pattern of infrequent purchases. Multiple-group analysis is used to assess the variation of key parameters of the model across various household life-cycle typologies. The analysis discloses significant life-cycle effects on the mean levels of expenditures; it also detects significant life-cycle effects on the way expenditures are affected by income and family size. Asymptotic robust methods are used to account for possible non-normality of the data.Structural equations, multi-group analysis, life cycle effects, product expenditures

    Country effects in ISSP-1993 environmental data: Comparison of SEM approaches

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    Structural equation models (SEM) are commonly used to analyze the relationship between variables some of which may be latent, such as individual ``attitude'' to and ``behavior'' concerning specific issues. A number of difficulties arise when we want to compare a large number of groups, each with large sample size, and the manifest variables are distinctly non-normally distributed. Using an specific data set, we evaluate the appropriateness of the following alternative SEM approaches: multiple group versus MIMIC models, continuous versus ordinal variables estimation methods, and normal theory versus non-normal estimation methods. The approaches are applied to the ISSP-1993 Environmental data set, with the purpose of exploring variation in the mean level of variables of ``attitude'' to and ``behavior'' concerning environmental issues and their mutual relationship across countries. Issues of both theoretical and practical relevance arise in the course of this application.Structural equation models, factors models, MIMIC models, latent variables, multiple group analysis, non-normality, goodness of fit test, environmental data

    Scaled and adjusted restricted tests in multi-sample analysis of moment structures

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    We extend to score, Wald and difference test statistics the scaled and adjusted corrections to goodness-of-fit test statistics developed in Satorra and Bentler (1988a,b). The theory is framed in the general context of multisample analysis of moment structures, under general conditions on the distribution of observable variables. Computational issues, as well as the relation of the scaled and corrected statistics to the asymptotic robust ones, is discussed. A Monte Carlo study illustrates the comparative performance in finite samples of corrected score test statistics.Moment-structures, Goodness-of-fit, score test, Wald test, scaling corrections, chi-square distribution, non-normality

    An empirical evaluation of small area estimators

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    This paper investigates the comparative performance of five small area estimators. We use Monte Carlo simulation in the context of both theoretical and empirical populations. In addition to the direct and indirect estimators, we consider the optimal composite estimator with population weights, and two composite estimators with estimated weights: one that assumes homogeneity of within area variance and square bias, and another one that uses area specific estimates of variance and square bias. It is found that among the feasible estimators, the best choice is the one that uses area specific estimates of variance and square bias.Regional statistics, small areas, root mean square error, direct, indirect and composite estimators

    An Empirical Evaluation of Five Small Area Estimators

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    This paper compares five small area estimators. We use Monte Carlo simulation in the context of both artificial and real populations. In addition to the direct and indirect estimators, we consider the optimal composite estimator with population weights, and two composite estimators with estimated weights: one that assumes homogeneity of within area variance and squared bias and one that uses area-specific estimates of variance and squared bias. In the study with real population, we found that among the feasible estimators, the best choice is the one that uses area-specific estimates of variance and squared bias.Regional statistics, small areas, root mean square error, direct, indirect and composite estimators.

    Fusion of data sets in multivariate linear regression with errors-in-variables

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    We consider the application of normal theory methods to the estimation and testing of a general type of multivariate regression models with errors--in--variables, in the case where various data sets are merged into a single analysis and the observable variables deviate possibly from normality. The various samples to be merged can differ on the set of observable variables available. We show that there is a convenient way to parameterize the model so that, despite the possible non--normality of the data, normal--theory methods yield correct inferences for the parameters of interest and for the goodness--of--fit test. The theory described encompasses both the functional and structural model cases, and can be implemented using standard software for structural equations models, such as LISREL, EQS, LISCOMP, among others. An illustration with Monte Carlo data is presented.Asymptotic robustness, multivariate regression, asymptotic efficiency, normal theory methods, multi--samples, errors--in--variables

    On the performance of small-area estimators: Fixed vs. random area parameters

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    Most methods for small-area estimation are based on composite estimators derived from design- or model-based methods. A composite estimator is a linear combination of a direct and an indirect estimator with weights that usually depend on unknown parameters which need to be estimated. Although model-based small-area estimators are usually based on random-effects models, the assumption of fixed effects is at face value more appropriate.Model-based estimators are justified by the assumption of random (interchangeable) area effects; in practice, however, areas are not interchangeable. In the present paper we empirically assess the quality of several small-area estimators in the setting in which the area effects are treated as fixed. We consider two settings: one that draws samples from a theoretical population, and another that draws samples from an empirical population of a labor force register maintained by the National Institute of Social Security (NISS) of Catalonia. We distinguish two types of composite estimators: a) those that use weights that involve area specific estimates of bias and variance; and, b) those that use weights that involve a common variance and a common squared bias estimate for all the areas. We assess their precision and discuss alternatives to optimizing composite estimation in applications.Small area estimation, composite estimator, Monte Carlo study, random effect model, BLUP, empirical BLUP

    Improving small area estimation by combining surveys: new perspectives in regional statistics

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    A national survey designed for estimating a specific population quantity is sometimes used for estimation of this quantity also for a small area, such as a province. Budget constraints do not allow a greater sample size for the small area, and so other means of improving estimation have to be devised. We investigate such methods and assess them by a Monte Carlo study. We explore how a complementary survey can be exploited in small area estimation. We use the context of the Spanish Labour Force Survey (EPA) and the Barometer in Spain for our study.Composite estimator, complementary survey, mean squared error, official statistics, regional statistics, small area

    Product expenditure patterns in the ECPF survey: an analysis using multiple group latent-variables models

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    Using data form the Spanish household budget survey, we investigate some aspects of household heterogeneity on several product expenditures. We adopt a latent-variable model approach to evaluate the impact of income on expenditures, controlling for the number of members in the family. Two latent factors underlying repeated measures of monetary and non-monetary income are used as explanatory variables in the expenditure regression equations, thus avoiding possible bias associated to the measurement error in income. The proposed methodology also takes care of the case in which product expenditures exhibit a pattern of infrequent purchases. Multiple-group analysis is used to assess the variation of key parameters of the model across various household typologies. The analysis discloses significant variations across groups on the mean levels of expenditures and on the way income and family size affect expenditures. Asymptotic robust methods are used to account for possible non-normality of the data
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