327 research outputs found

    Developing tools and models for evaluating geospatial data integration of official and VGI data sources

    Get PDF
    PhD ThesisIn recent years, systems have been developed which enable users to produce, share and update information on the web effectively and freely as User Generated Content (UGC) data (including Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)). Data quality assessment is a major concern for supporting the accurate and efficient spatial data integration required if VGI is to be used alongside official, formal, usually governmental datasets. This thesis aims to develop tools and models for the purpose of assessing such integration possibilities. Initially, in order to undertake this task, geometrical similarity of formal and informal data was examined. Geometrical analyses were performed by developing specific programme interfaces to assess the positional, linear and polygon shape similarity among reference field survey data (FS); official datasets such as data from Ordnance Survey (OS), UK and General Directorate for Survey (GDS), Iraq agencies; and VGI information such as OpenStreetMap (OSM) datasets. A discussion of the design and implementation of these tools and interfaces is presented. A methodology has been developed to assess such positional and shape similarity by applying different metrics and standard indices such as the National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA) for positional quality; techniques such as buffering overlays for linear similarity; and application of moments invariant for polygon shape similarity evaluations. The results suggested that difficulties exist for any geometrical integration of OSM data with both bench mark FS and formal datasets, but that formal data is very close to reference datasets. An investigation was carried out into contributing factors such as data sources, feature types and number of data collectors that may affect the geometrical quality of OSM data and consequently affect the integration process of OSM datasets with FS, OS and GDS. Factorial designs were undertaken in this study in order to develop and implement an experiment to discover the effect of these factors individually and the interaction between each of them. The analysis found that data source is the most significant factor that affects the geometrical quality of OSM datasets, and that there are interactions among all these factors at different levels of interaction. This work also investigated the possibility of integrating feature classification of official datasets such as data from OS and GDS geospatial data agencies, and informal datasets such as OSM information. In this context, two different models were developed. The first set of analysis included the evaluation of semantic integration of corresponding feature classifications of compared datasets. The second model was concerned with assessing the ability of XML schema matching of feature classifications of tested datasets. This initially involved a tokenization process in order to split up into single words classifications that were composed of multiple words. Subsequently, encoding feature classifications as XML schema trees was undertaken. The semantic similarity, data type similarity and structural similarity were measured between the nodes of compared schema trees. Once these three similarities had been computed, a weighted combination technique has been adopted in order to obtain the overall similarity. The findings of both sets of analysis were not encouraging as far as the possibility of effectively integrating feature classifications of VGI datasets, such as OSM information, and formal datasets, such as OS and GDS datasets, is concerned.Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Republic of Iraq

    Lost in Translation: Shop Signs in Jordan

    Get PDF
    Shop signs, in the Jordanian public commercial environment, have invariably been studied from linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic perspectives, but they have been utterly ignored from a translational point of view. This study, the first of its kind, investigates various problems and inadequacies pertinent to the subject under discussion. Shop signs are selected here from a number of heterogeneous cities, and the translation errors therein, committed by communicators, were empirically analyzed and categorized. Language and culture are, of necessity, inextricably intertwined, and this nexus is particularly apparent in the world of local commercial shop signs, and thus it has been tackled for its direct relevance to the translation of these signs. This investigation, therefore, highlights the linguistic (e.g., word-order, wrong lexical choice, and reductionist strategies), and extralinguistic (i.e., sociocultural and promotional) factors that have turned out to lead to translation inappropriateness and unparallelisms, information skewing, and, consequently, serious semantic-conceptual problems in the produced TLTs. This study may, in a way, provide educated insight into the trendiest translation practices in this field, and the way shop signs are most often verbalized, mishandled, and mistranslated.Les panneaux de magasins, nombreux dans le contexte commercial public en Jordanie, ont Ă©tĂ© largement Ă©tudiĂ©s d’un point de vue linguistique, sociolinguistique et pragmatique, mais jamais ils n’ont Ă©tĂ© abordĂ©s sur le plan de leur traduction. Cette Ă©tude, la premiĂšre de son genre, aborde les problĂšmes et insuffisances liĂ©s au sujet en question. Les panneaux commerciaux ont Ă©tĂ© sĂ©lectionnĂ©s Ă  partir d’un certain nombre de paramĂštres hĂ©tĂ©rogĂšnes. Quant aux erreurs de traduction commises par les interlocuteurs, elles ont Ă©tĂ© empiriquement analysĂ©es et classĂ©es par catĂ©gorie. Étant donnĂ© que la langue et la culture sont inextricablement liĂ©es, le lien entre elles s’avĂšre encore plus Ă©vident lorsqu’il s’agit des panneaux commerciaux locaux. Le sujet a Ă©tĂ© ainsi abordĂ© en raison de son rapport direct avec la traduction de ces signes. Cette recherche met donc l’accent sur les facteurs Ă  la fois linguistiques (e.g. l’ordre des mots, les choix lexicaux, les stratĂ©gies rĂ©ductionnistes) et extralinguistiques (e.g. facteurs socioculturels et promotionnels) qui ont Ă©tĂ© Ă  l’origine de l’inexactitude et l’inadĂ©quation de la traduction, d’une part, et du dĂ©tournement de l’information, d’autre part. Ce qui mĂšne, en consĂ©quence, Ă  de graves problĂšmes sĂ©mantico-conceptuels sur le plan des traductions en question. Cette Ă©tude pourrait, d’une certaine maniĂšre, fournir un aperçu instruit des diffĂ©rentes tendances de traduction pratiquĂ©es dans le domaine ainsi que de la maniĂšre dont les panneaux commerciaux sont souvent exprimĂ©s, malmenĂ©s et, notamment, mal traduits

    Static Analysis Based Behavioral API for Malware Detection using Markov Chain

    Get PDF
    Researchers employ behavior based malware detection models that depend on API tracking and analyzing features to identify suspected PE applications. Those malware behavior models become more efficient than the signature based malware detection systems for detecting unknown malwares. This is because a simple polymorphic or metamorphic malware can defeat signature based detection systems easily. The growing number of computer malwares and the detection of malware have been the concern for security researchers for a large period of time. The use of logic formulae to model the malware behaviors is one of the most encouraging recent developments in malware research, which provides alternatives to classic virus detection methods. To address the limitation of traditional AVs, we proposed a virus detection system based on extracting Application Program Interface (API) calls from virus behaviors. The proposed research uses static analysis of behavior-based detection mechanism without executing of software to detect viruses at user mod by using Markov Chain. Keywords: Malware Detection; Markov Chain; Virus Behavior; API Call

    Characterization of LUSI Mud as Geopolymer Raw Material

    Get PDF
    The mud of mud volcano samples were collected from an eruption site named ‘LUSI’ (Lumpur “mud” –Sidoarjo), East Java, Indonesia for characterization. Analysis showed that, the major constituents of mud are SiO2 and Al2O3 which are higher than those in fly ash. The particle of mud has a flake-shaped particle and the overall particle size is dominated by particles between 2.5ÎŒm – 25.0ÎŒm. The results of XRD shows that mud of mud volcano have a characteristic of structurally disordered compounds, and a set of peaks corresponding to minor crystalline phases such as quartz, feldspars, and kaolinite. FTIR adsorption bands of the raw material of mud have the chemical bonding between bands 1-5

    A Simple Parameterization to Enhance the Computational Time in the Three Layer Dry Deposition Model for Smooth Surfaces

    Get PDF
    Optimization of dry deposition velocity calculation has been of great interest. Every time, determining the value of the concentration boundary layer (CBL) thickness led to a waste of numerical calculation time, which appears as a huge time in large-scale climate models. The goal of this study is to optimize the numerical calculation time in the three-layer deposition model for smooth surfaces through the development of a MATLAB code that can parameterize the appropriate concentration boundary layer height (y+cbl) and internal integral calculation intervals for each particle diameter Dp (0.01–100 ”m) and friction velocity u* (0.01–100 m/s). The particle concentration, as a solution to the particle flux equation, is obtained and modeled numerically by performing the left Riemann sum using MATLAB software. On the other hand, the number of subdivisions N of the Riemann sum was also parameterized for each Dp and u* in order to lessen the numerical calculation time. From a numerical point of view, the new parameterizations were tested by several computers; about 78% on the average of the computation time was saved when compared with the original algorithm. In other words, on average, about 1.2 s/calculation was gained, which is valuable in climate models simulations when millions of dry deposition calculations are needed

    A Simple Parameterization to Enhance the Computational Time in the Three Layer Dry Deposition Model for Smooth Surfaces

    Get PDF
    Optimization of dry deposition velocity calculation has been of great interest. Every time, determining the value of the concentration boundary layer (CBL) thickness led to a waste of numerical calculation time, which appears as a huge time in large-scale climate models. The goal of this study is to optimize the numerical calculation time in the three-layer deposition model for smooth surfaces through the development of a MATLAB code that can parameterize the appropriate concentration boundary layer height (y+cbl) and internal integral calculation intervals for each particle diameter Dp (0.01–100 ”m) and friction velocity u* (0.01–100 m/s). The particle concentration, as a solution to the particle flux equation, is obtained and modeled numerically by performing the left Riemann sum using MATLAB software. On the other hand, the number of subdivisions N of the Riemann sum was also parameterized for each Dp and u* in order to lessen the numerical calculation time. From a numerical point of view, the new parameterizations were tested by several computers; about 78% on the average of the computation time was saved when compared with the original algorithm. In other words, on average, about 1.2 s/calculation was gained, which is valuable in climate models simulations when millions of dry deposition calculations are needed

    Evaluating the effect of unsteady air flow on a slotted aerofoil of wind turbines

    Get PDF
    In this study, three types of aerofoils were examined at various angles of attack and at a steady value then fluctuated of air flow. Then, the findings were compared to the XFOIL prediction results. The experimental and simulation results were consistent to some extent with the XFOIL prediction results. The shape of the chosen aerofoils was modified by making a slot through the blade the aerofoil and studying their effect on the aerodynamics of the modified shape. The slotted aerofoil shape was studied as it faced a fluctuated wind flow. The results revealed that the increase in angles of attack, the lift force increased and approximated its maximum value and then began to decrease with the slot. During the calculations, a case study for the number of elements was done to obtain the best mesh. The experimental and simulations were conducted by using ANSYS CFD at Reynolds number 106 and AOA equals (0°, 4°, 8°, 10°, 12°, 15°, 16°, 17°, 18°) for three shapes of aerofoils which are without a slot, two of which are symmetrical, NACA 0012 and NACA 0015, and one asymmetrical, which is NACA 4415. The slotted aerofoil (existence of an opening after 40% from the leading edge) which is the NACA 0015 aerofoil, was simulated

    Thermal performance of double-layer porous copper strips mounted as hollow cylinders

    Get PDF
    The thermal performance of thin double-layer porous copper strips was experimentally examined. To fabricate double-layer porous copper strips the lost carbonate sintering procedure was employed. The suitability of these materials for applications of heat sink was systematically investigated. Then, the thermal properties of an external heat transfer facility, which operates under a forced heat convection process using air as a coolant, were assessed. In this case, a cylindrical heating system was chosen to be used with the air passing across the samples at mass rates of 0.1- 0.5 kg/s. The temperatures of the air at the inlet and outlet in addition to the surface temperature of the system were monitored and used to determine the heat transfer performance. The results showed that both the porosity and roughness in a surface of a material could play an essential role in such type of material in enhancing heat transfer at a surface of the system. With high porosity and surface roughness of up to 82% and Ra ≀ 1.21 mm, respectively, the sample achieved a thermal transmittance 57% higher than that of a reference smooth copper sheet under the same Reynolds number. Finally, the heat transmittance of the examined porous sheets in the current research increased with the bulk porosity and surface roughness
    • 

    corecore