286 research outputs found

    Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Strength of Inertial Entrainment

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    Entrainment process can be seen both in natural and artificial events. Cyclonic winds and weather storms include stratified layer of air and water phases. Many turbulent weather conditions can be explained on the basis of entrainment. Different artificial purposes also utilize the phenomenon of entrainment. One of the examples is an educator pump. These pumps are used in ships to extract water in case of water leakage into the ship. The pump is used to remove the air and the water inside the ship is entrained out by the suction of the pump. Entrainment is used for air bubble entrapment in concrete. This helps to strengthen the concrete. Entrainment is also observed in the making of emulsion of one fluid in another, such as margarine. As for artificial processes with stratified liquid layers, the best examples metal extraction industries and nuclear reactors. In both cases gases are formed within liquid layers and cause entrainment. This is unwanted as entrainment causes mixing between two liquids. However in case of desalination plants and other places where mixing is desired, entrainment is enhanced purposely. The mixing of two fluids is generally done by bubbling gas through a tank containing the two fluids. These type of systems are called gas bubble stirred tanks

    Study of menstrual disorders and its correlation with BMI in adolescents

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    Background: Due to change in lifestyle, habits, diet, the prevalence of obesity has increased. Excess weight and obesity are associated with irregular menstrual cycles, which reduce fertility and increase hormone-sensitive cancers. Obesity is considered to cause abnormality of sex steroid hormone balance. Irregular menstruation is more frequently observed in women who became obese during puberty than in those who were obese during infancy. Obesity has a strong association with infertility and menstrual irregularities. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Durgapur (West Bengal), where total 600 adolescent girls aged 12-17 years from DAV Model School, Durgapur and GMPS High School, Durgapur were selected. Results: Out of total 600 girls, 119 girls (19.8%) had BMI<18.5 kg/m2, 357 girls (59.5%) had BMI between 18.5-24.99 kg/m2 and 124 girls (20.7%) had BMI>25 kg/m2. Only 68 girls (57.1%) with less BMI, 205 girls (57.4%) with normal BMI and 62 girls (50%) with BMI>25 kg/m2 had dysmenorrhoea. Only 19 girls (16%) with less BMI, 46 girls (12.9%) with normal BMI and only 15 girls (12.1%) with higher BMI had menorrhagia. Only 4 girls (3.4%) with less BMI, 14 girls (3.9%) with normal BMI and 12 girls (9.7%) with high BMI had hypomenorrhoea. Only 10 girls (8.4%) with less BMI, 37 girls (10.4%) with normal BMI and only 28 girls (22.5%) with high BMI had irregular cycles. Only 5 girls (4.2%) with less BMI, 12 girls (3.4%) with normal BMI and only 11 girls (8.9%) with high BMI had oligomenorrhoea. Only 2 girls (1.7%) with less BMI, 3 girls (0.8%) with normal BMI and only 4 girls (3.2%) with higher BMI had polymenorrhoea. Only 43 underweight girls (36.1%), 166 girls (46.5%) with normal BMI and 68 girls (54.8%) with higher BMI had premenstrual symptoms. Conclusions: Mean BMI was found 21.6±3.64 kg/m2. High BMI girls had more oligomenorrhoea, hypomenorrhoea, irregular menstrual cycles, polymenorrhoea, premenstrual symptoms and less dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia comparatively to normal BMI girls and underweight girls.

    Benchmarking Large Language Model Capabilities for Conditional Generation

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    Pre-trained large language models (PLMs) underlie most new developments in natural language processing. They have shifted the field from application-specific model pipelines to a single model that is adapted to a wide range of tasks. Autoregressive PLMs like GPT-3 or PaLM, alongside techniques like few-shot learning, have additionally shifted the output modality to generation instead of classification or regression. Despite their ubiquitous use, the generation quality of language models is rarely evaluated when these models are introduced. Additionally, it is unclear how existing generation tasks--while they can be used to compare systems at a high level--relate to the real world use cases for which people have been adopting them. In this work, we discuss how to adapt existing application-specific generation benchmarks to PLMs and provide an in-depth, empirical study of the limitations and capabilities of PLMs in natural language generation tasks along dimensions such as scale, architecture, input and output language. Our results show that PLMs differ in their applicability to different data regimes and their generalization to multiple languages and inform which PLMs to use for a given generation task setup. We share best practices to be taken into consideration when benchmarking generation capabilities during the development of upcoming PLMs

    Management and therapeutic implications of combined protein C and S deficiency in pregnancy: a case report

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    The pregnancy is an immunocompromised state. Thus, autoimmune diseases may affect pregnancy and get worsen during pregnancy. Here authors discuss a rare autoimmune thrombophilia disorder, protein C and S deficiency which may cause recurrent pregnancy losses by affecting haemostatic mechanisms in the body. This patient with recurrent pregnancy loss when evaluated extensively was found to have combined inherited protein C and S deficiency. It was successfully managed with thromboprophylaxis therapy, which resulted in the delivery of healthy baby. Long term anticoagulant prophylaxis should be considered weighing the risk of bleeding to thrombotic recurrence in such cases. In conclusion, combined protein C and S deficiency and that too presenting as recurrent pregnancy loss is very rare. Thrombophilia screening should be considered in cases of recurrent pregnancy losses. Adequate and appropriate thromboprophylaxis is an important part of the management of pregnant women with inherited thrombophilia
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