36 research outputs found

    Increased expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in human pituitary tumors

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    PURPOSE: Subsets of pituitary tumors exhibit an aggressive clinical courses and recur despite surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Because modulation of the immune response through inhibition of T-cell checkpoints has led to durable clinical responses in multiple malignancies, we explored whether pituitary adenomas express immune-related biomarkers that could suggest suitability for immunotherapy. Specifically, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has emerged as a potential biomarker whose expression may portend more favorable responses to immune checkpoint blockade therapies. We thus investigated the expression of PD-L1 in pituitary adenomas. METHODS: PD-L1 RNA and protein expression were evaluated in 48 pituitary tumors, including functioning and non-functioning adenomas as well as atypical and recurrent tumors. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte populations were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pituitary tumors express variable levels of PD-L1 transcript and protein. PD-L1 RNA and protein expression were significantly increased in functioning (growth hormone and prolactin-expressing) pituitary adenomas compared to non-functioning (null cell and silent gonadotroph) adenomas. Moreover, primary pituitary adenomas harbored higher levels of PD-L1 mRNA compared to recurrent tumors. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were observed in all pituitary tumors and were positively correlated with increased PD-L1 expression, particularly in the functional subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Human pituitary adenomas harbor PD-L1 across subtypes, with significantly higher expression in functioning adenomas compared to non-functioning adenomas. This expression is accompanied by the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. These findings suggest the existence of an immune response to pituitary tumors and raise the possibility of considering checkpoint blockade immunotherapy in cases refractory to conventional management

    Structural Characterization of Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 Biphenyl Dioxygenase Reveals Features of Potent Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Degrading Enzymes

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    The oxidative degradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is initiated in Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 by biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDOB356)(BPDO_{B356}). BPDOB356BPDO_{B356}, a heterohexameric (αβ)3(αβ)_3 Rieske oxygenase (RO), catalyzes the insertion of dioxygen with stereo- and regioselectivity at the 2,3-carbons of biphenyl, and can transform a broad spectrum of PCB congeners. Here we present the X-ray crystal structures of BPDOB356BPDO_{B356} with and without its substrate biphenyl 1.6-Å resolution for both structures. In both cases, the Fe(II) has five ligands in a square pyramidal configuration: H233 Nε2, H239 Nε2, D386 Oδ1 and Oδ2, and a single water molecule. Analysis of the active sites of BPDOB356BPDO_{B356} and related ROs revealed structural features that likely contribute to the superior PCB-degrading ability of certain BPDOs. First, the active site cavity readily accommodates biphenyl with minimal conformational rearrangement. Second, M231 was predicted to sterically interfere with binding of some PCBs, and substitution of this residue yielded variants that transform 2,2′-dichlorobiphenyl more effectively. Third, in addition to the volume and shape of the active site, residues at the active site entrance also apparently influence substrate preference. Finally, comparison of the conformation of the active site entrance loop among ROs provides a basis for a structure-based classification consistent with a phylogeny derived from amino acid sequence alignments

    Integrated mapping of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a patient-derived xenograft model of glioblastoma

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    Therapeutic options for the treatment of glioblastoma remain inadequate despite concerted research efforts in drug development. Therapeutic failure can result from poor permeability of the blood-brain barrier, heterogeneous drug distribution, and development of resistance. Elucidation of relationships among such parameters could enable the development of predictive models of drug response in patients and inform drug development. Complementary analyses were applied to a glioblastoma patient-derived xenograft model in order to quantitatively map distribution and resulting cellular response to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. Mass spectrometry images of erlotinib were registered to histology and magnetic resonance images in order to correlate drug distribution with tumor characteristics. Phosphoproteomics and immunohistochemistry were used to assess protein signaling in response to drug, and integrated with transcriptional response using mRNA sequencing. This comprehensive dataset provides simultaneous insight into pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and indicates that erlotinib delivery to intracranial tumors is insufficient to inhibit EGFR tyrosine kinase signaling.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (U54 CA210180)MIT/Mayo Physical Sciences Center for Drug Distribution and Drug Efficacy in Brain TumorsDana-Farber Cancer Institute (PLGA Fund)Lundbeck FoundationNovo Nordisk Foundatio

    Reactivity of Toluate Dioxygenase with Substituted Benzoates and Dioxygen

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    Toluate dioxygenase (TADO) of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 catalyzes the dihydroxylation of a broad range of substituted benzoates. The two components of this enzyme were hyperexpressed and anaerobically purified. Reconstituted TADO had a specific activity of 3.8 U/mg with m-toluate, and each component had a full complement of their respective Fe(2)S(2) centers. Steady-state kinetics data obtained by using an oxygraph assay and by varying the toluate and dioxygen concentrations were analyzed by a compulsory order ternary complex mechanism. TADO had greatest specificity for m-toluate, displaying apparent parameters of KmA = 9 ± 1 μM, k(cat) = 3.9 ± 0.2 s(−1), and K(m)O(2) = 16 ± 2 μM (100 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.0; 25°C), where K(m)O(2) represents the K(m) for O(2) and KmA represents the K(m) for the aromatic substrate. The enzyme utilized benzoates in the following order of specificity: m-toluate > benzoate ≃ 3-chlorobenzoate > p-toluate ≃ 4-chlorobenzoate ≫ o-toluate ≃ 2-chlorobenzoate. The transformation of each of the first five compounds was well coupled to O(2) utilization and yielded the corresponding 1,2-cis-dihydrodiol. In contrast, the transformation of ortho-substituted benzoates was poorly coupled to O(2) utilization, with >10 times more O(2) being consumed than benzoate. However, the apparent K(m) of TADO for these benzoates was >100 μM, indicating that they do not effectively inhibit the turnover of good substrates