117 research outputs found

    Meta-analysis of the origin of bimaturism in orangutan males

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    Unlike any other primate species, orangutans exhibit extraordinary sexual differences in their facial morphology. Two different strategies are available for males that reach sexual maturity: either become fully ‚Äúflanged‚ÄĚ and develop secondary sexual characteristics, which is knownto be only developed by the dominant male, or remain ‚Äúunflanged‚ÄĚ and not develop secondary sexual characteristics. The mechanism for how this bimaturism evolved and how occurs is poorly understood, but both flanged and unflanged males are reproductively successful. This project explores the physiological mechanism behind bimaturismin orangutan males; namely, are there genetic differences between flanged and unflanged males such that the strategy is inherited, is bimaturism a result of hormonal differences, and how do the two strategies influence reproductive success in male orangutans? Previous studies have shown that males that develop these ‚Äúflanges‚ÄĚ or cheek pads are more likely to have a high reproductive success than the ones who do not develop them. Results suggest that males with flanges emit a loud vocalization calls, also known as long calls, that give them higher opportunity for mates.https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/uresposters/1257/thumbnail.jp

    The Austrian and Keynesian business cycle theory and its effectiveness to combat recession-A case study in construction industry in United Kingdom

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    Business cycles are the ‚Äúups and downs‚ÄĚ in economic activity, defined in terms of periods of expansion or recession. This paper attempted to find out empirical evidence of effectiveness of Austrian and Keynesian theory of business cycle when a country is in recession and how to combat the recession. The study investigates UK economic data from 2003-2013 derived from Trading Economics Website and office of the National Statics UK. This study concludes that in the boom period Keynesian theory is effective as interest rate was low and government spending was high to stimulate demand. In recessionary period it is found that government money supply was very high but production of capital goods was very poor which means Keynesian theory has not been applied. But the recent booming period evidenced that interest rate is low and govt spending high

    ERS/EAACI Statement on severe exacerbations in asthma in adult: facts, priorities and key research questions

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    International audienceDespite the use of effective medications to control asthma, severe exacerbations in asthma are still a major health risk and require urgent action on the part of the patient and physician to prevent a serious outcome such as hospitalisation or death. Moreover, severe exacerbations are associated with substantial huge healthcare costs, and psychological burden including anxiety and fear for patients and their families. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) set up a Task Force (TF) to search for a clear definition of severe exacerbations and to also define research questions and priorities. The statement includes comments from patients who were members of the TF

    The REFUGE-ED Dialogic Co-Creation Process : working with and for REFUGE-ED children and minors

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    A growing body of literature suggests that involving end-users in intervention research, including design, implementation, and evaluation, is associated with numerous positive outcomes. These outcomes include improved intervention efficacy, sustainability, and psychological growth among collaborators. The value of this approach and the recommendation for researchers to embrace co-creation in implementation and policies have also been recognised within the EU Framework of Research Innovation. Furthermore, it has been suggested that this approach may be particularly relevant for working with individuals from marginalised groups, whose voices are often absent from research and policy discussions. However, there has been limited attention given to how co-creation unfolds in practice. In this article, we provide a review of the methodological framework implemented by the H2020 REFUGE-ED (2021-2023), which was conducted in collaboration with migrant, refugee, and asylum-seeking communities. The project implemented the 'REFUGE-ED Dialogic Co-Creation Process (RDCP)' in 46 educational settings across six European countries. Considering the need for evidence-based approaches in education and mental health and psychosocial support practices, we suggest that the RDCP has the potential for sustainability and replicability in diverse contexts

    Global, regional, and national burden of chronic kidney disease, 1990‚Äď2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background Health system planning requires careful assessment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) epidemiology, but data for morbidity and mortality of this disease are scarce or non-existent in many countries. We estimated the global, regional, and national burden of CKD, as well as the burden of cardiovascular disease and gout attributable to impaired kidney function, for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017. We use the term CKD to refer to the morbidity and mortality that can be directly attributed to all stages of CKD, and we use the term impaired kidney function to refer to the additional risk of CKD from cardiovascular disease and gout. Methods The main data sources we used were published literature, vital registration systems, end-stage kidney disease registries, and household surveys. Estimates of CKD burden were produced using a Cause of Death Ensemble model and a Bayesian meta-regression analytical tool, and included incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, mortality, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). A comparative risk assessment approach was used to estimate the proportion of cardiovascular diseases and gout burden attributable to impaired kidney function. Findings Globally, in 2017, 1¬∑2 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1¬∑2 to 1¬∑3) people died from CKD. The global all-age mortality rate from CKD increased 41¬∑5% (95% UI 35¬∑2 to 46¬∑5) between 1990 and 2017, although there was no significant change in the age-standardised mortality rate (2¬∑8%, ‚ąí1¬∑5 to 6¬∑3). In 2017, 697¬∑5 million (95% UI 649¬∑2 to 752¬∑0) cases of all-stage CKD were recorded, for a global prevalence of 9¬∑1% (8¬∑5 to 9¬∑8). The global all-age prevalence of CKD increased 29¬∑3% (95% UI 26¬∑4 to 32¬∑6) since 1990, whereas the age-standardised prevalence remained stable (1¬∑2%, ‚ąí1¬∑1 to 3¬∑5). CKD resulted in 35¬∑8 million (95% UI 33¬∑7 to 38¬∑0) DALYs in 2017, with diabetic nephropathy accounting for almost a third of DALYs. Most of the burden of CKD was concentrated in the three lowest quintiles of Socio-demographic Index (SDI). In several regions, particularly Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the burden of CKD was much higher than expected for the level of development, whereas the disease burden in western, eastern, and central sub-Saharan Africa, east Asia, south Asia, central and eastern Europe, Australasia, and western Europe was lower than expected. 1¬∑4 million (95% UI 1¬∑2 to 1¬∑6) cardiovascular disease-related deaths and 25¬∑3 million (22¬∑2 to 28¬∑9) cardiovascular disease DALYs were attributable to impaired kidney function. Interpretation Kidney disease has a major effect on global health, both as a direct cause of global morbidity and mortality and as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CKD is largely preventable and treatable and deserves greater attention in global health policy decision making, particularly in locations with low and middle SDI

    Global, regional, and national burden of epilepsy, 1990 - 2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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    Background: Seizures and their consequences contribute to the burden of epilepsy because they can cause health loss (premature mortality and residual disability). Data on the burden of epilepsy are needed for health-care planning and resource allocation. The aim of this study was to quantify health loss due to epilepsy by age, sex, year, and location using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. Methods: We assessed the burden of epilepsy in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Burden was measured as deaths, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; a summary measure of health loss defined by the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] for premature mortality and years lived with disability), by age, sex, year, location, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI; a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility). Vital registrations and verbal autopsies provided information about deaths, and data on the prevalence and severity of epilepsy largely came from population representative surveys. All estimates were calculated with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Interpretation: Despite the decrease in the disease burden from 1990 to 2016, epilepsy is still an important cause of disability and mortality. Standardised collection of data on epilepsy in population representative surveys will strengthen the estimates, particularly in countries for which we currently have no or sparse data and if additional data is collected on severity, causes, and treatment. Sizeable gains in reducing the burden of epilepsy might be expected from improved access to existing treatments in low-income countries and from the development of new effective drugs worldwide

    Quantifying risks and interventions that have affected the burden of diarrhoea among children younger than 5 years : an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background Many countries have shown marked declines in diarrhoea! disease mortality among children younger than 5 years. With this analysis, we provide updated results on diarrhoeal disease mortality among children younger than 5 years from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) and use the study's comparative risk assessment to quantify trends and effects of risk factors, interventions, and broader sociodemographic development on mortality changes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Methods This analysis for GBD 2017 had three main components. Diarrhoea mortality was modelled using vital registration data, demographic surveillance data, and verbal autopsy data in a predictive, Bayesian, ensemble modelling tool; and the attribution of risk factors and interventions for diarrhoea were modelled in a counterfactual framework that combines modelled population-level prevalence of the exposure to each risk or intervention with the relative risk of diarrhoea given exposure to that factor. We assessed the relative and absolute change in diarrhoea mortality rate between 1990 and 2017, and used the change in risk factor exposure and sociodemographic status to explain differences in the trends of diarrhoea mortality among children younger than 5 years. Findings Diarrhoea was responsible for an estimated 533 768 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 477 162-593 145) among children younger than 5 years globally in 2017, a rate of 78.4 deaths (70.1-87.1) per 100 000 children. The diarrhoea mortality rate ranged between countries by over 685 deaths per 100 000 children. Diarrhoea mortality per 100 000 globally decreased by 69.6% (63.1-74.6) between 1990 and 2017. Among the risk factors considered in this study, those responsible for the largest declines in the diarrhoea mortality rate were reduction in exposure to unsafe sanitation (13.3% decrease, 11.2-15.5), childhood wasting (9.9% decrease, 9.6-10.2), and low use of oral rehydration solution (6.9% decrease, 4-8-8-4). Interpretation Diarrhoea mortality has declined substantially since 1990, although there are variations by country. Improvements in sociodemographic indicators might explain some of these trends, but changes in exposure to risk factors-particularly unsafe sanitation, childhood growth failure, and low use of oral rehydration solution-appear to be related to the relative and absolute rates of decline in diarrhoea mortality. Although the most effective interventions might vary by country or region, identifying and scaling up the interventions aimed at preventing and protecting against diarrhoea that have already reduced diarrhoea mortality could further avert many thousands of deaths due to this illness

    Quantifying risks and interventions that have affected the burden of lower respiratory infections among children younger than 5 years : an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background Despite large reductions in under-5 lower respiratory infection (LRI) mortality in many locations, the pace of progress for LRIs has generally lagged behind that of other childhood infectious diseases. To better inform programmes and policies focused on preventing and treating LRIs, we assessed the contributions and patterns of risk factor attribution, intervention coverage, and sociodemographic development in 195 countries and territories by drawing from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) LRI estimates. Methods We used four strategies to model LRI burden: the mortality due to LRIs was modelled using vital registration data, demographic surveillance data, and verbal autopsy data in a predictive ensemble modelling tool; the incidence of LRIs was modelled using population representative surveys, health-care utilisation data, and scientific literature in a compartmental meta-regression tool; the attribution of risk factors for LRI mortality was modelled in a counterfactual framework; and trends in LRI mortality were analysed applying changes in exposure to risk factors over time. In GBD, infectious disease mortality, including that due to LRI, is among HIV-negative individuals. We categorised locations based on their burden in 1990 to make comparisons in the changing burden between 1990 and 2017 and evaluate the relative percent change in mortality rate, incidence, and risk factor exposure to explain differences in the health loss associated with LRIs among children younger than 5 years. Findings In 2017, LRIs caused 808 920 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 747 286-873 591) in children younger than 5 years. Since 1990, there has been a substantial decrease in the number of deaths (from 2 337 538 to 808 920 deaths; 65.4% decrease, 61.5-68.5) and in mortality rate (from 362.7 deaths [3304-392.0] per 100 000 children to 118.9 deaths [109.8-128.3] per 100 000 children; 67.2% decrease, 63.5-70.1). LRI incidence dedined globally (32.4% decrease, 27.2-37.5). The percent change in under-5 mortality rate and incidence has varied across locations. Among the risk factors assessed in this study, those responsible for the greatest decrease in under-5 LRI mortality between 1990 and 2017 were increased coverage of vaccination against Haemophilus influenza type b (11.4% decrease, 0.0-24.5), increased pneumococcal vaccine coverage (6.3% decrease, 6.1-6.3), and reductions in household air pollution (8.4%, 6 8-9.2). Interpretation Our findings show that there have been substantial but uneven declines in LRI mortality among countries between 1990 and 2017. Although improvements in indicators of sociodemographic development could explain some of these trends, changes in exposure to modifiable risk factors are related to the rates of decline in LRI mortality. No single intervention would universally accelerate reductions in health loss associated with LRIs in all settings, but emphasising the most dominant risk factors, particularly in countries with high case fatality, can contribute to the reduction of preventable deaths

    Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study for atrial fibrillation

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    Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects more than 33 million individuals worldwide and has a complex heritability. We conducted the largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for AF to date, consisting of more than half a million individuals, including 65,446 with AF. In total, we identified 97 loci significantly associated with AF, including 67 that were novel in a combined-ancestry analysis, and 3 that were novel in a European-specific analysis. We sought to identify AF-associated genes at the GWAS loci by performing RNA-sequencing and expression quantitative trait locus analyses in 101 left atrial samples, the most relevant tissue for AF. We also performed transcriptome-wide analyses that identified 57 AF-associated genes, 42 of which overlap with GWAS loci. The identified loci implicate genes enriched within cardiac developmental, electrophysiological, contractile and structural pathways. These results extend our understanding of the biological pathways underlying AF and may facilitate the development of therapeutics for AF
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