91 research outputs found

    Camera con ananas: Immagini di cibo, immaginari di luogo nella piattaforma Airbnb

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    Il presente contributo verte sulle fotografe che illustrano gli alloggi offerti su Airbnb a Siena e nei suoi dintorni, concentran dosi in particolare sulle fgure alimentari e gastronomiche al fne di rifettere sui processi di turistifcazione del territorio innescati e accelerati dalle piattaforme

    The Wolf of Wall Street. Sopravvivere nello stato di natura

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    El cine contempor谩neo ha profundizado en el retrato de la violencia del capitalismo financiero y The Wolf of Wall Street (2013) de Martin Scorsese denuncia el intento de establecer una representaci贸n plausible de las formas de vida y relaciones de poder que emergen de la globalizaci贸n y de la volatilizaci贸n de los mercados y de los bienes. El retorno a una dimensi贸n salvaje y primordial de la violencia pone en escena un estado de naturaleza ajeno a las leyes que regulan el comportamiento colectivo, y que se convierten en el fundamento de un contrato social opuesto al del estado de derecho. Esta forma de violencia se desdobla en la enunciaci贸n con im谩genes que agreden al espectador, imponi茅ndole un 煤nico punto de vista que fagocita el relato. Desde una perspectiva que combina la metodolog铆a semi贸tica y la teor铆a cr铆tica, se analiza aqu铆 el modo en que el film aborda las formas de subjetivaci贸n espec铆ficas del capitalismo financiero.Contemporary cinema has widely inquired the regime of violence deployed by financial capitalism and The Wolf of Wall Street (2013) by Martin Scorsese elaborates an appropriate representation of power relationships arisen from market globalization and the dematerialization of goods. The narration of a return to a savage and primordial dimension of violence thus stages a state of nature which is foreign to the laws ruling social behavior and nevertheless becomes the ground for a new contractuality opposed to the existing state of right. In turn, this thematic dimension seems to be constantly doubled by an enunciational level, since it is the image itself which uses violence against the spectatorial gaze, imposing the main character鈥檚 unique point of view, which seems to expunge any form of otherness and difference. This paper aims at proposing a reflexion through images about the forms of subjectivation specific of the animal competition transposed to the virtual world of financial trade, intertwining the theory in action inside the film with Aesthetics and Critical Theory positions

    New insights upon the reproductive biology of the sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) in the Mediterranean: Implications for management and domestication

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    Holothuria tubulosa is one of the most common sea cucumber species inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. Due to its commercial interest for the international market, it has been harvested without proper management causing the overexploitation of its stocks. Inadequate management is also caused by lack of information on basic biology and ecology not allowing the estimating of the species vulnerability and resilience to growing anthropogenic pressures. In this paper, we have investigated basic life-history traits of H. tubulosa (population structure and reproductive cycle) in a population of Central-Western Mediterranean (Sardinia, Italy). A macroscopic maturity scale for both sexes was defined through an instrumental colorimetric analysis of the gonads and the ramification level of the gonad鈥檚 tubules, subsequently confirmed by histological analysis. The seasonal trend of the Gonado Somatic Index, the changes in color of the gonads and tubules ramification indicated that the spawning period of H. tubulosa was concentrated in summer with a peak in late August, closely related to the increase in water temperature. A synchronous development of the gonads, with a unique and short reproductive event during the year, was also detected. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the biological and ecological features of H. tubulosa, essential data for developing a scientifically-based stock assessment as well as conservative management at a local scale. Finally, we provided basic information for the domestication of broodstock in a conservative hatchery

    The impact of sequence database choice on metaproteomic results in gut microbiota studies

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    Background: Elucidating the role of gut microbiota in physiological and pathological processes has recently emerged as a key research aim in life sciences. In this respect, metaproteomics, the study of the whole protein complement of a microbial community, can provide a unique contribution by revealing which functions are actually being expressed by specific microbial taxa. However, its wide application to gut microbiota research has been hindered by challenges in data analysis, especially related to the choice of the proper sequence databases for protein identification. Results: Here, we present a systematic investigation of variables concerning database construction and annotation and evaluate their impact on human and mouse gut metaproteomic results. We found that both publicly available and experimental metagenomic databases lead to the identification of unique peptide assortments, suggesting parallel database searches as a mean to gain more complete information. In particular, the contribution of experimental metagenomic databases was revealed to be mandatory when dealing with mouse samples. Moreover, the use of a "merged" database, containing all metagenomic sequences from the population under study, was found to be generally preferable over the use of sample-matched databases. We also observed that taxonomic and functional results are strongly database-dependent, in particular when analyzing the mouse gut microbiota. As a striking example, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio varied up to tenfold depending on the database used. Finally, assembling reads into longer contigs provided significant advantages in terms of functional annotation yields. Conclusions: This study contributes to identify host- and database-specific biases which need to be taken into account in a metaproteomic experiment, providing meaningful insights on how to design gut microbiota studies and to perform metaproteomic data analysis. In particular, the use of multiple databases and annotation tools has to be encouraged, even though this requires appropriate bioinformatic resources

    Incorporation of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp.) in Argentinean ovine cheese

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    The market of cheeses from ewe鈥檚 milk has been growing steadily in Argentina. The nutritional benefits of these products can be enhanced by adding probiotic cultures. In the present study, the survival of a mix of probiotic microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12) in a semi-hard ovine cheese, manufactured with a technology previously developed in our institute was evaluated. Besides, the effect of its incorporation on the chemical composition and ripening parameters of cheeses, including the fatty acid composition and CLA production, was investigated. Experimental cheeses made with Bb12 and La-5 retained counts of the probiotic strains at the required therapeutic level (107 CFU g鈭1 ). No significant differences were detected between experimental and control cheeses with respect to the different parameters evaluated: gross composition, nitrogen fractions, lipolysis, fatty acids profiles of cheese fat including CLA, and volatile fraction. Results demonstrated that the ovine cheese matrix seems to be suitable for delivery of probiotic microorganisms.Fil: Perotti, Maria Cristina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cient铆fico Tecnol贸gico Santa Fe. Instituto de Lactologia Industrial; ArgentinaFil: Wolf, Irma Veronica. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cient铆fico Tecnol贸gico Santa Fe. Instituto de Lactologia Industrial; ArgentinaFil: Addis, Margherita. AGRIS Sardegna. Dipartamento per la ricerca nelle produzioni animali (DIRPA), Sardegna; ItaliaFil: Comunian, Roberta. AGRIS Sardegna. Dipartamento per la ricerca nelle produzioni animali (DIRPA), Sardegna; ItaliaFil: Paba, Antonio. AGRIS Sardegna. Dipartamento per la ricerca nelle produzioni animali (DIRPA), Sardegna; ItaliaFil: Meinardi, Carlos Alberto. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Facultad de Ingenier铆a Qu铆mica; Argentin

    Distribution of spawning and nursery grounds for deep鈥搘ater red shrimps in the central western Mediterranean Sea

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    The presence of spawning and nursery grounds of Aristeids in the central western Mediterranean Sea were investigated using fishery-independent data (trawl surveys, 1994鈥2012). Spatial distributions were generated for mature animals and recruits, for both spring/summer and autumn data, using an inverse distance-weighted deterministic interpolation. The persistence index was used to identify stable spawning and nursery grounds in the Sardinian slope region for Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus. Areas of aggregation for recruits and mature females appear to be connected with important physical habitat features. The analysis also suggests a seasonal bathymetric distribution for nursery areas. The recruits of A. foliacea are located in the upper part of the continental slope (377-450 m) in spring/summer and reach greater depths (468-628 m) in autumn. For A. antennatus, for which nursery areas only emerge in autumn, there is presumably an opposite ontogenic migration, from deep sea to upper slope, during the summer (575-681 m). The results also indicate a partial overlap between the nursery and spawning grounds of both species. In this particular area, local environmental conditions such as upwelling events or the presence of canyons and seamounts seem to play an important role in their distribution. This study also generated relevant information on the spatial and temporal distribution of seasonal or persistent aggregations of spawners and recruits, providing scientific elements to suggest the protection of these important resources

    Evaluating the impact of different sequence databases on metaproteome analysis: insights from a lab-assembled microbial mixture

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    Metaproteomics enables the investigation of the protein repertoire expressed by complex microbial communities. However, to unleash its full potential, refinements in bioinformatic approaches for data analysis are still needed. In this context, sequence databases selection represents a major challenge. This work assessed the impact of different databases in metaproteomic investigations by using a mock microbial mixture including nine diverse bacterial and eukaryotic species, which was subjected to shotgun metaproteomic analysis. Then, both the microbial mixture and the single microorganisms were subjected to next generation sequencing to obtain experimental metagenomic- and genomic-derived databases, which were used along with public databases (namely, NCBI, UniProtKB/SwissProt and UniProtKB/TrEMBL, parsed at different taxonomic levels) to analyze the metaproteomic dataset. First, a quantitative comparison in terms of number and overlap of peptide identifications was carried out among all databases. As a result, only 35% of peptides were common to all database classes; moreover, genus/species-specific databases provided up to 17% more identifications compared to databases with generic taxonomy, while the metagenomic database enabled a slight increment in respect to public databases. Then, database behavior in terms of false discovery rate and peptide degeneracy was critically evaluated. Public databases with generic taxonomy exhibited a markedly different trend compared to the counterparts. Finally, the reliability of taxonomic attribution according to the lowest common ancestor approach (using MEGAN and Unipept software) was assessed. The level of misassignments varied among the different databases, and specific thresholds based on the number of taxon-specific peptides were established to minimize false positives. This study confirms that database selection has a significant impact in metaproteomics, and provides critical indications for improving depth and reliability of metaproteomic results. Specifically, the use of iterative searches and of suitable filters for taxonomic assignments is proposed with the aim of increasing coverage and trustworthiness of metaproteomic data.</br

    Milk Microbiota: What Are We Exactly Talking About?

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    The development of powerful sequencing techniques has allowed, albeit with some biases, the identification and inventory of complex microbial communities that inhabit different body sites or body fluids, some of which were previously considered sterile. Notably, milk is now considered to host a complex microbial community with great diversity. Milk microbiota is now well documented in various hosts. Based on the growing literature on this microbial community, we address here the question of what milk microbiota is. We summarize and compare the microbial composition of milk in humans and in ruminants and address the existence of a putative core milk microbiota. We discuss the factors that contribute to shape the milk microbiota or affect its composition, including host and environmental factors as well as methodological factors, such as the sampling and sequencing techniques, which likely introduce distortion in milk microbiota analysis. The roles that milk microbiota are likely to play in the mother and offspring physiology and health are presented together with recent data on the hypothesis of an enteromammary pathway. At last, this fascinating field raises a series of questions, which are listed and commented here and which open new research avenues

    International Coordination of Long-Term Ocean Biology Time Series Derived from Satellite Ocean Color Data

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    [ABSTRACT] In this paper, we will describe plans to coordinate the initial development of long-term ocean biology time series derived from global ocean color observations acquired by the United States, Japan and Europe, Specifically, we have been commissioned by the International Ocean Color Coordinating Group (IOCCG) to coordinate the development of merged products derived from the OCTS, SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS and GLI imagers. Each of these missions will have been launched by the year 2002 and will have produced global ocean color data products. Our goal is to develop and document the procedures to be used by each space agency (NASA, NASDA, and ESA) to merge chlorophyll, primary productivity, and other products from these missions. This coordination is required to initiate the production of long-term ocean biology time series which will be continued operationally beyond 2002. The purpose of the time series is to monitor interannual to decadal-scale variability in oceanic primary productivity and to study the effects of environmental change on upper ocean biogeochemical processes

    Identification of cork characters for phenotypic selection

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    Global change effects can determine major changes in species distribution and productivity. In the Mediterranean region of the severity of hot and dry periods is growing and an increased frequency of extreme events and a major vulnerability of natural ecosystems is evident. Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is widely spread in the West Mediterranean region and its economic and social is important
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