898 research outputs found

    Resolving the disk rotation of HD 97048 and HD 100546 in the [O I] 6300A line: evidence for a giant planet orbiting HD 100546

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    Aims. We intend to spatially and spectrally resolve the [O I] emission region in two nearby Herbig stars. Methods. We present high-resolution (R = 80,000) VLT/UVES echelle spectra of the [O I] 6300A line in the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 97048 and HD 100546. Apart from the spectral signature, also the spatial extent of the [O I] emission region is investigated. For both stars, we have obtained spectra with the slit positioned at different position angles on the sky. Results. The [O I] emission region of HD 100546 appears to be coinciding with the dust disk, its major axis located at 150+/-11 degrees east of north. The SE part of the disk moves towards the observer, while the NW side is redshifted. The [O I] emission region rotates counterclockwise around the central star. For HD 97048, the position angle of the emission region is 160+/-19 degrees east of north, which is the first determination of this angle in the literature. The southern parts of the disk are blueshifted, the northern side moves away from us. Our data support the idea that a gap is present at 10AU in the disk of HD 100546. Such a gap is likely planet-induced. We estimate the mass and orbital radius of this hypothetical companion responsible for this gap to be 20 Jupiter masses and 6.5 AU respectively. Conclusions. Based on temporal changes in the [O I] line profile, we conclude that inhomogeneities are present in the [O I] emission region of HD 100546. These ``clumps'' could be in resonance with the suggested companion, orbiting the central star in about 11 yr. If confirmed, these observations could point to the existence of an object straddling the line between giant planet and brown dwarf in a system as young as 10 million years.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics (28/11/2005

    On the interplay between flaring and shadowing in disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars

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    Based on the SED, Herbig stars have been categorized into two observational groups, reflecting their overall disk structure: group I members have disks with a higher degree of flaring than their group II counterparts. We investigate the 5-35 um Spitzer IRS spectra of a sample of 13 group I sources and 20 group II sources. We focus on the continuum emission to study the underlying disk geometry. We have determined the [30/13.5] and [13.5/7] continuum flux ratios. The 7-um flux excess with respect to the stellar photosphere is measured, as a marker for the strength of the near-IR emission produced by the inner disk. We have compared our data to self-consistent passive-disk model spectra, for which the same quantities were derived. We confirm the literature result that the difference in continuum emission between group I and II sources can largely be explained by a different amount of small dust grains. However, we report a strong correlation between the [30/13.5] and [13.5/7] flux ratios for Meeus group II sources. Moreover, the [30/13.5] flux ratio decreases with increasing 7-um excess for all targets in the sample. To explain these correlations with the models, we need to introduce an artificial scaling factor for the inner disk height. In roughly 50% of the Herbig Ae/Be stars in our sample, the inner disk must be inflated by a factor 2 to 3 beyond what hydrostatic calculations predict. The total disk mass in small dust grains determines the degree of flaring. We conclude, however, that for any given disk mass in small dust grains, the shadowing of the outer (tens of AU) disk is determined by the scale height of the inner disk (1 AU). The inner disk partially obscures the outer disk, reducing the disk surface temperature. Here, for the first time, we prove these effects observationally.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, accepted by A&

    Direct diameter measurement of a star filling its Roche Lobe: The semi-detached binary SS Leporis spatially resolved with VINCI/VLTI

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    Stellar evolution in close binary systems is strongly influenced by mass transfer from one star to the other when one component fills its zero-velocity surface or Roche Lobe. SS Lep is a fairly nearby close binary showing the Algol paradox and a shell spectrum, both indicative of (past) mass transfer. To study the process of mass transfer and its evolutionary consequences, we aim at a direct characterisation of the spatial dimensions of the different components of SS Lep with IR interferometry. We use VINCI/VLTI interferometric observations in the K band and photometric observations from the UV to the far-IR. The visibilities are interpreted with simple geometrical models and the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) is decomposed into the three main components: A star, M star and dust shell/disk. From the SED, we find that the main emitters in the K band are the M star and the circumstellar environment. Both are spatially resolved with the VINCI observations, showing the excess to be circumbinary and showing the M star to have a size equal to its Roche Lobe. We conclude that we have, for the first time, directly resolved a star filling its Roche Lobe. The resulting mass transfer is probably the cause of (1) the circumbinary dust disk of which we see the hot inner region spatially resolved in our observations, (2) the unusually high luminosity of the A star and (3) the shell spectrum seen in the UV and optical spectra.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in A&A Letters on 26/05/200

    Evidence for CO depletion in the inner regions of gas-rich protoplanetary disks

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    We investigate the physical properties and spatial distribution of Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas in the disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 97048 and HD 100546. Using high-spectral-resolution 4.588-4.715 μ\mum spectra containing fundamental CO emission taken with CRIRES on the VLT, we probe the circumstellar gas and model the kinematics of the emission lines. By using spectro-astrometry on the spatially resolved targets, we constrain the physical size of the emitting regions in the disks. We resolve, spectrally and spatially, the emission of the 13^{13}CO v(1-0) vibrational band and the 12^{12}CO v=10,v=21,v=32v=1-0, v=2-1, v=3-2 and v=43v=4-3 vibrational bands in both targets, as well as the 12^{12}CO v=54v=5-4 band in HD 100546. Modeling of the CO emission with a homogeneous disk in Keplerian motion, yields a best fit with an inner and outer radius of the CO emitting region of 11 and \geq 100 AU for HD 97048. HD 100546 is not fit well with our model, but we derive a lower limit on the inner radius of 8 AU. The fact that gaseous [OI] emission was previously detected in both targets at significantly smaller radii suggests that CO may be effectively destroyed at small radii in the surface layers of these disksComment: v2: Letter format has been changed to Paper format; Change in the focus of the paper towards CO depletion; Major changes in text; Change of title. Submitted to A&A, 14/10/2008. Accepted by A&A, 17/04/200

    Maximum probability domains : theoretical foundations and computational algorithms

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    Hearing impairment in Stickler syndrome: a systematic review

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    BACKGROUND: Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder characterized by ocular, skeletal, orofacial and auditory defects. It is caused by mutations in different collagen genes, namely COL2A1, COL11A1 and COL11A2 (autosomal dominant inheritance), and COL9A1 and COL9A2 (autosomal recessive inheritance). The auditory phenotype in Stickler syndrome is inconsistently reported. Therefore we performed a systematic review of the literature to give an up-to-date overview of hearing loss in Stickler syndrome, and correlated it with the genotype. METHODS: English-language literature was reviewed through searches of PubMed and Web of Science, in order to find relevant articles describing auditory features in Stickler patients, along with genotype. Prevalences of hearing loss are calculated and correlated with the different affected genes and type of mutation. RESULTS: 313 patients (102 families) individually described in 46 articles were included. Hearing loss was found in 62.9%, mostly mild to moderate when reported. Hearing impairment was predominantly sensorineural (67.8%). Conductive (14.1%) and mixed (18.1%) hearing loss was primarily found in young patients or patients with a palatal defect. Overall, mutations in COL11A1 (82.5%) and COL11A2 (94.1%) seem to be more frequently associated with hearing impairment than mutations in COL2A1 (52.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Hearing impairment in patients with Stickler syndrome is common. Sensorineural hearing loss predominates, but also conductive hearing loss, especially in children and patients with a palatal defect, may occur. The distinct disease-causing collagen genes are associated with a different prevalence of hearing impairment, but still large phenotypic variation exists. Regular auditory follow-up is strongly advised, particularly because many Stickler patients are visually impaired

    Excessiveness in a German Social Media Debate on Gender-fair Language

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    Gender-fair language is a contested topic in contemporaryGermany. Many reports on the introduction of language changes meantto reduce discrimination result in heated debates in print, online andsocial media.In this article, I qualitatively analyse a selected debate on gender-fairlanguage on Twitter to find out how excessive the language use is andwho makes use of what kind of excessive language. The time frame ofanalysis covers a critical discourse moment in 2018 during which theCouncil for German Orthography for the first time dealt with new gen-der-fair spelling variants. Since the Council, being the only official lan-guage planning institution for German, publishes the official regulationson orthography valid in schools and administrative bodies in Germany,its decision was highly anticipated and disputed.The analysed debate contained only a few argumentative exchangeson the topic. In general, it can be said that Twitter was mostly used to takea stance, not to engage in discussions. The overall style of the debate waspolemic and exhibited many and various instances of excessive languageuse, mostly by opponents of gender-fair language. This group made useof vulgar language, pejoratives and in some cases direct insults. Theyespecially questioned their adversaries’ mental health. Only a few pro-ponents used excessive language when they insinuated a lack of mentalcapacity in their adversaries
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