27 research outputs found

### Hidden Sectors in String Theory: Kinetic Mixings, Fifth Forces and Quintessence

Light moduli fields in string compactifications can have interesting
implications for particle physics and cosmology. Fifth force bounds impose
stringent constraints on the interactions of such moduli with the visible
sector. To be consistent with the bounds, they need to be part of hidden
sectors which interact with the Standard Model with weaker-than-Planck
suppressed interactions. We consider scenarios in which the visible sector
degrees of freedom are localised in the compactification and light moduli arise
as closed string degrees of freedom associated with hidden sectors which are
geometrically separated (in the extra-dimensions) from the Standard Model.
Kinetic mixings lead to interactions between the moduli and the visible sector
- we compute these using Kaehler potentials of string/M-theory
compactifications. We argue that in general these interactions provide a lower
bound on the strength of the interactions between the moduli and the visible
sector. The interactions scale with inverse powers of the volume of the
compactification, thus fifth force bounds can be translated to lower bounds on
the volume of the extra-dimensions. We find that compactification volumes have
to be large to evade the bounds. This imposes interesting constraints on
quintessence model building in string theory. Our results for the strength of
the interactions can also be used to quantify the fine-tuning necessary for the
stability of the potential of a light modulus against quantum corrections
involving visible sector loops

### How Robust are the Inferred Density and Metallicity of the Circumgalactic Medium?

Quantitative estimates of the basic properties of the circumgalactic
medium(CGM), such as its density and metallicity, depend on the spectrum of
incident UV background radiation. Models of UV background are known to have
large variations, mainly because they are synthesized using poorly constrained
parameters, which introduce uncertainty in the inferred properties of the CGM.
Here, we quantify this uncertainty using a large set of new UV background
models with physically motivated toy models of metal-enriched CGM. We find
that, the inferred density and metallicity of low-density ($10^{-5}$ cm$^{-3}$)
gas is uncertain by factors of 6.3 and 3.2, whereas high density ($10^{-3}$
cm$^{-3}$) gas by factors of 4 and 1.6, respectively. The variation in the
shape of the UV background models is entirely responsible for such a variation
in the metallicity while variation in the density arises from both
normalization and shape of the UV background. Moreover, we find a harder
(softer) UV background infers higher (lower) density and metallicity. We also
study warm-hot gas at $T= 10^{5.5}$ K and find that metallicity is robustly
estimated but the inferred density is uncertain by a factor of 3 to 5.4 for low
to high-density gas. Such large uncertainties in density and metallicity may
severely limit the studies of the CGM and demand better observational
constraints on the input parameters used in synthesizing UV background.Comment: 19 pages, 16 figures, 2 tables: accepted for publication in the
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS

### Spectral fit residuals as an indicator to increase model complexity

Spectral fitting of X-ray data usually involves minimizing statistics like
the chi-square and the Cash statistic. Here we discuss their limitations and
introduce two measures based on the cumulative sum (CuSum) of model residuals
to evaluate whether model complexity could be increased: the percentage of bins
exceeding a nominal threshold in a CuSum array (pct$_{CuSum}$), and the excess
area under the CuSum compared to the nominal (p$_\textit{area}$). We
demonstrate their use with an application to a $\textit{Chandra}$ ACIS spectral
fit.Comment: 3 pages, 1 figure, published in the Research Notes of the American
Astronomical Society (RNAAS

### Cosmic variance suppression in radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of the reionization-era 21-cm signal

The 21-cm line emitted by neutral hydrogen is the most promising probe of the
Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Multiple radio interferometric instruments are on
the cusp of detecting its power spectrum. It is therefore essential to deliver
robust theoretical predictions, enabling sound inference of the coeval Universe
properties. The nature of this signal traditionally required the modelling of
$\mathcal{O}(10^{7-8} \, {\rm Mpc}^3)$ volumes to suppress the impact of cosmic
variance. However, the recently-proposed Fixed & Paired (F&P) approach uses
carefully-crafted simulation pairs to achieve equal results in smaller volumes.
In this work, we thoroughly test the applicability of and improvement granted
by this technique to different observables of the 21-cm signal from the EoR. We
employ radiation-magneto-hydrodynamics simulations to ensure the most realistic
physical description of this epoch, greatly improving over previous studies
using a semi-numerical approach without accurate galaxy formation physics and
radiative transfer. We estimate the statistical improvement granted by the F&P
technique on predictions of the skewness, power spectrum, bispectrum and
ionized regions size distribution of the 21-cm signal at redshift $7 \leq z
\leq 10$ (corresponding to $\geq80\%$ of the gas being neutral). We find that
the effective volume of F&P simulations is at least 3.5 times larger than
traditional simulations. This directly translates into an equal improvement in
the computational cost (in terms of time and memory). Finally, we confirm that
a combination of different observables like skewness, power spectrum and
bispectrum across different redshifts can be utilised to maximise the
improvement.Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in the
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS

### Properties of loss cone stars in a cosmological galaxy merger remnant

Aims: We investigate the orbital and phase space properties of loss cone
stars that interact strongly with a hard, high-redshift binary supermassive
black hole (SMBH) system formed in a cosmological scenario. Methods: We use a
novel hybrid integration approach that combines the direct N-body code
$\varphi$-GRAPE with ETICS, a collisionless code that employs the
self-consistent field method for force calculation. The hybrid approach shows
considerable speed-up over direct summation for particle numbers $> 10^6$,
while retaining accuracy of direct N-body for a subset of particles. During the
SMBH binary evolution we monitor individual stellar interactions with the
binary in order to identify stars that noticeably contribute to the SMBH binary
hardening. Results: We successfully identify and analyze in detail the
properties of stars that extract energy from the binary. We find that the
summed energy changes seen in these stars match very well with the overall
binary energy change, demonstrating that stellar interactions are the primary
drivers of SMBH binary hardening in triaxial, gas-poor systems. The slight
triaxiality of our system results in efficient loss cone refilling, avoiding
the final parsec problem. We distinguish three different populations of
interactions based on their apocenter. We find a clear prevalence of
interactions co-rotating with the binary. Nevertheless, retrograde interactions
are the most energetic, contributing only slightly less than the prograde
population to the overall energy exchange. The most energetic interactions are
also likely to result in a change of sign in the angular momentum of the star.
We estimate the merger timescale of the binary to be $\approx 20$
$\mathrm{Myr}$, a value larger by a factor of two than the timescale reported
in a previous study.Comment: 17 pages, 13 figures, 2 tables; accepted for publication in Astronomy
& Astrophysic

### X-ray Activity on the Star-Planet Interaction Candidate HD 179949

We carry out detailed spectral and timing analyses of the $Chandra$ X-ray
data of HD 179949, a prototypical example of a star with a close-in giant
planet with possible star-planet interaction (SPI) effects. We find a low
coronal abundance Fe/H$\approx$0.2 relative to the solar photosphere, as well
as lower abundances of high FIP elements O/Fe $\lesssim$1, Ne/Fe $\lesssim$
0.1, but with indications of higher abundances of N and Al. This star also has
an anomalous FIP bias of $\approx 0.03 \pm 0.03$, larger than expected for
stars of this type. We detect significant intensity variability over time
scales ranging from 100~s - 10~ks, and also evidence for spectral variability
over time scales of 1-10~ks. We combine the $Chandra$ flux measurements with
$Swift$ and $XMM-Newton$ measurements to detect periodicities, and determine
that the dominant signal is tied to the stellar polar rotational period,
consistent with expectations that the corona is rotational-pole dominated. We
also find evidence for periodicity at both the planetary orbital frequency and
at its beat frequency with the stellar polar rotational period, suggesting the
presence of a magnetic connection between the planet and the stellar pole. If
these periodicities represent an SPI signal, the lack of phase dependence in
coronal temperature or flaring suggests that the SPI in this system is driven
by a quasi-continuous form of heating (e.g., magnetic field stretching) rather
than a highly sporadic, hot, impulsive form (e.g., flare-like reconnection).Comment: 23 pages, 12 figures, 9 tables. Submitted to the Astrophysical
Journal. Comments welcome

### 21-cm Signal from the Epoch of Reionization: A Machine Learning upgrade to Foreground Removal with Gaussian Process Regression

In recent years, a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) based framework has been
developed for foreground mitigation from data collected by the LOw-Frequency
ARray (LOFAR), to measure the 21-cm signal power spectrum from the Epoch of
Reionization (EoR) and Cosmic Dawn. However, it has been noted that through
this method there can be a significant amount of signal loss if the EoR signal
covariance is misestimated. To obtain better covariance models, we propose to
use a kernel trained on the {\tt GRIZZLY} simulations using a Variational
Auto-Encoder (VAE) based algorithm. In this work, we explore the abilities of
this Machine Learning based kernel (VAE kernel) used with GPR, by testing it on
mock signals from a variety of simulations, exploring noise levels
corresponding to $\approx$10 nights ($\approx$141 hours) and $\approx$100
nights ($\approx$1410 hours) of observations with LOFAR. Our work suggests the
possibility of successful extraction of the 21-cm signal within 2$\sigma$
uncertainty in most cases using the VAE kernel, with better recovery of both
shape and power than with previously used covariance models. We also explore
the role of the excess noise component identified in past applications of GPR
and additionally analyse the possibility of redshift dependence on the
performance of the VAE kernel. The latter allows us to prepare for future LOFAR
observations at a range of redshifts, as well as compare with results from
other telescopes.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figures, 3 tables. Accepted for publication in the
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Societ

### Hidden sectors in string theory: kinetic mixings, fifth forces and quintessence

Abstract Light moduli fields in string compactifications can have interesting implications for particle physics and cosmology. Fifth force bounds impose stringent constraints on the interactions of such moduli with the visible sector. To be consistent with the bounds, they need to be part of hidden sectors which interact with the Standard Model with weaker-than-Planck suppressed interactions. We consider scenarios in which the visible sector degrees of freedom are localised in the compactification and light moduli arise as closed string degrees of freedom associated with hidden sectors which are geometrically separated (in the extra-dimensions) from the Standard Model. Kinetic mixings lead to interactions between the moduli and the visible sector â€” we compute these using KÃ¤hler potentials of string/M-theory compactifications. We argue that in general these interactions provide a lower bound on the strength of the interactions between the moduli and the visible sector. The interactions scale with inverse powers of the volume of the compactification, thus fifth force bounds can be translated to lower bounds on the volume of the extra-dimensions. We find that compactification volumes have to be large to evade the bounds. This imposes interesting constraints on quintessence model building in string theory. Our results for the strength of the interactions can also be used to quantify the fine-tuning necessary for the stability of the potential of a light modulus against quantum corrections involving visible sector loops