20,977 research outputs found

    The Pierre Auger Observatory: Results on Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

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    The focus of this article is on recent results on ultra-high energy cosmic rays obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The world's largest instrument of this type and its performance are described. The observations presented here include the energy spectrum, the primary particle composition, limits on the fluxes of photons and neutrinos and a discussion of the anisotropic distribution of the arrival directions of the most energetic particles. Finally, plans for the construction of a Northern Auger Observatory in Colorado, USA, are discussed.Comment: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Advances in Cosmic Ray Science, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, March 2008; to be published in the Journal of the Physical Society of Japan (JPSJ) supplemen

    Reionization of Hydrogen and Helium by Early Stars and Quasars

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    We compute the reionization histories of hydrogen and helium due to the ionizing radiation fields produced by stars and quasars. For the quasars we use a model based on halo-merger rates that reproduces all known properties of the quasar luminosity function at high redshifts. The less constrained properties of the ionizing radiation produced by stars are modeled with two free parameters: (i) a transition redshift, z_tran, above which the stellar population is dominated by massive, zero-metallicity stars and below which it is dominated by a Scalo mass function; (ii) the product of the escape fraction of stellar ionizing photons from their host galaxies and the star-formation efficiency, f_esc f_*. We constrain the allowed range of these free parameters at high redshifts based on the lack of the HI Gunn-Peterson trough at z<6 and the upper limit on the total intergalactic optical depth for electron scattering, tau_es<0.18, from recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. We find that quasars ionize helium by a redshift z~4, but cannot reionize hydrogen by themselves before z~6. A major fraction of the allowed combinations of f_esc f_* and z_tran lead to an early peak in the ionized fraction due to metal-free stars at high redshifts. This sometimes results in two reionization epochs, namely an early HII or HeIII overlap phase followed by recombination and a second overlap phase. Even if early overlap is not achieved, the peak in the visibility function for scattering of the CMB often coincides with the early ionization phase rather than with the actual reionization epoch. Consequently, tau_es does not correspond directly to the reionization redshift. We generically find values of tau_es>7%, that should be detectable by the MAP satellite.Comment: 33 pages, 10 figures, Accepted for publication in Ap

    Ferromagnetic resonance study of polycrystalline Fe_{1-x}V_x alloy thin films

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    Ferromagnetic resonance has been used to study the magnetic properties and magnetization dynamics of polycrystalline Fe1x_{1-x}Vx_{x} alloy films with 0x<0.70\leq x < 0.7. Films were produced by co-sputtering from separate Fe and V targets, leading to a composition gradient across a Si substrate. FMR studies were conducted at room temperature with a broadband coplanar waveguide at frequencies up to 50 GHz using the flip-chip method. The effective demagnetization field 4πMeff4 \pi M_{\mathrm{eff}} and the Gilbert damping parameter α\alpha have been determined as a function of V concentration. The results are compared to those of epitaxial FeV films

    Apparent first-order wetting and anomalous scaling in the two-dimensional Ising model

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    The global phase diagram of wetting in the two-dimensional (2d) Ising model is obtained through exact calculation of the surface excess free energy. Besides a surface field for inducing wetting, a surface-coupling enhancement is included. The wetting transition is critical (second order) for any finite ratio of surface coupling J_s to bulk coupling J, and turns first order in the limit J_s/J to infinity. However, for J_s/J much larger than 1 the critical region is exponentially small and practically invisible to numerical studies. A distinct pre-asymptotic regime exists in which the transition displays first-order character. Surprisingly, in this regime the surface susceptibility and surface specific heat develop a divergence and show anomalous scaling with an exponent equal to 3/2.Comment: This new version presents the exact solution and its properties whereas the older version was based on an approximate numerical study of the mode

    Non-equilibrium Dynamics of Finite Interfaces

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    We present an exact solution to an interface model representing the dynamics of a domain wall in a two-phase Ising system. The model is microscopically motivated, yet we find that in the scaling regime our results are consistent with those obtained previously from a phenomenological, coarse-grained Langevin approach.Comment: 12 pages LATEX (figures available on request), Oxford preprint OUTP-94-07

    Quantum corrections to the Larmor radiation formula in scalar electrodynamics

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    We use the semi-classical approximation in perturbative scalar quantum electrodynamics to calculate the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation formula to first order in Planck's constant in the non-relativistic approximation, choosing the initial state of the charged particle to be a momentum eigenstate. We calculate this correction in two cases: in the first case the charged particle is accelerated by a time-dependent but space-independent vector potential whereas in the second case it is accelerated by a time-independent vector potential which is a function of one spatial coordinate. We find that the corrections in these two cases are different even for a charged particle with the same classical motion. The correction in each case turns out to be non-local in time in contrast to the classical approximation.Comment: 19 page

    The kinetics of homogeneous melting beyond the limit of superheating

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    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the time-scales involved in the homogeneous melting of a superheated crystal. The interaction model used is an embedded-atom model for Fe developed in previous work, and the melting process is simulated in the microcanonical (N,V,E)(N, V, E) ensemble. We study periodically repeated systems containing from 96 to 7776 atoms, and the initial system is always the perfect crystal without free surfaces or other defects. For each chosen total energy EE and number of atoms NN, we perform several hundred statistically independent simulations, with each simulation lasting for between 500 ps and 10 ns, in order to gather statistics for the waiting time τw\tau_{\rm w} before melting occurs. We find that the probability distribution of τw\tau_{\rm w} is roughly exponential, and that the mean value <τw><\tau_{\rm w} > depends strongly on the excess of the initial steady temperature of the crystal above the superheating limit identified by other researchers. The mean also depends strongly on system size in a way that we have quantified. For very small systems of 100\sim 100 atoms, we observe a persistent alternation between the solid and liquid states, and we explain why this happens. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the reliability of the recently proposed Z method for determining the melting properties of simulated materials, and to suggest ways of correcting for the errors of the method.Comment: 19 pages, 8 figure

    The Role of Perceived Uncertainty, Ego Identity, and Perceived Behavioral Control in Predicting Patient's Attitude Toward Medical Surgery

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    Medical surgery has sometimes become the only best choice for a patient's well-being. Unfortunately, not all patients have the willingness to live it. Often, therapeutic failure is caused by uncooperative attitudes of the patients which originate from their negative attitudes toward the surgery. This research is aimed at finding a theoretical model to explain psychological factors forming the patient's attitudes. This predictive correlational research was conducted on 99 patients suffering heart disease and cancer continuum who require medical surgery in DKI Jakarta, Indonesia. Research results showed that a commitment aspect of ego identity is able to indirectly predict attitude toward medical surgery through mediation of perceived uncertainty. Perceived behavioral control directly predicts the attitude in a negative direction. This research concludes that patients' commitment towards their identity plays a significant role as they deal with medical surgery
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