14,942 research outputs found

    The Visibility of Galactic Bars and Spiral Structure At High Redshifts

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    We investigate the visibility of galactic bars and spiral structure in the distant Universe by artificially redshifting 101 B-band CCD images of local spiral galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey. Our artificially redshifted images correspond to Hubble Space Telescope I-band observations of the local galaxy sample seen at z=0.7, with integration times matching those of both the very deep Northern Hubble Deep Field data, and the much shallower Flanking Field observations. The expected visibility of galactic bars is probed in two ways: (1) using traditional visual classification, and (2) by charting the changing shape of the galaxy distribution in "Hubble space", a quantitative two-parameter description of galactic structure that maps closely on to Hubble's original tuning fork. Both analyses suggest that over 2/3 of strongly barred luminous local spirals i.e. objects classified as SB in the Third Reference Catalog) would still be classified as strongly barred at z=0.7 in the Hubble Deep Field data. Under the same conditions, most weakly barred spirals (classified SAB in the Third Reference Catalog) would be classified as regular spirals. The corresponding visibility of spiral structure is assessed visually, by comparing luminosity classifications for the artificially redshifted sample with the corresponding luminosity classifications from the Revised Shapley Ames Catalog. We find that for exposures times similar to that of the Hubble Deep Field spiral structure should be detectable in most luminous low-inclination spiral galaxies at z=0.7 in which it is present. [ABRIDGED]Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journa

    Noncommutative theories and general coordinate transformations

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    We study the class of noncommutative theories in dd dimensions whose spatial coordinates (xi)i=1d(x_i)_{i=1}^d can be obtained by performing a smooth change of variables on (yi)i=1d(y_i)_{i=1}^d, the coordinates of a standard noncommutative theory, which satisfy the relation [yi,yj]=iθij[y_i, y_j] = i \theta_{ij}, with a constant θij\theta_{ij} tensor. The xix_i variables verify a commutation relation which is, in general, space-dependent. We study the main properties of this special kind of noncommutative theory and show explicitly that, in two dimensions, any theory with a space-dependent commutation relation can be mapped to another where that θij\theta_{ij} is constant.Comment: 21 pages, no figures, LaTeX. v2: section 5 added, typos corrected. Version to appear in Physical Review

    FERENGI: Redshifting galaxies from SDSS to GEMS, STAGES and COSMOS

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    We describe the creation of a set of artificially "redshifted" galaxies in the range 0.1<z<1.1 using a set of ~100 SDSS low redshift (v<7000 km/s) images as input. The intention is to generate a training set of realistic images of galaxies of diverse morphologies and a large range of redshifts for the GEMS and COSMOS galaxy evolution projects. This training set allows other studies to investigate and quantify the effects of cosmological redshift on the determination of galaxy morphologies, distortions and other galaxy properties that are potentially sensitive to resolution, surface brightness and bandpass issues. We use galaxy images from the SDSS in the u, g, r, i, z filter bands as input, and computed new galaxy images from these data, resembling the same galaxies as located at redshifts 0.1<z<1.1 and viewed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST ACS). In this process we take into account angular size change, cosmological surface brightness dimming, and spectral change. The latter is achieved by interpolating a spectral energy distribution that is fit to the input images on a pixel-to-pixel basis. The output images are created for the specific HST ACS point spread function and the filters used for GEMS (F606W and F850LP) and COSMOS (F814W). All images are binned onto the desired pixel grids (0.03" for GEMS and 0.05" for COSMOS) and corrected to an appropriate point spread function. Noise is added corresponding to the data quality of the two projects and the images are added onto empty sky pieces of real data images. We make these datasets available from our website, as well as the code - FERENGI: "Full and Efficient Redshifting of Ensembles of Nearby Galaxy Images" - to produce datasets for other redshifts and/or instruments.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figures, 3 table

    Evidence for Evolving Spheroidals in the Hubble Deep Fields North and South

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    We investigate the dispersion in the internal colours of faint spheroidals in the HDFs North and South. We find that a remarkably large fraction ~30% of the morphologically classified spheroidals with I<24 mag show strong variations in internal colour, which we take as evidence for recent episodes of star-formation. In most cases these colour variations manifest themselves via the presence of blue cores, an effect of opposite sign to that expected from metallicity gradients. Examining similarly-selected ellipticals in five rich clusters with 0.37<z<0.83 we find a significant lower dispersion in their internal colours. This suggests that the colour inhomogeneities have a strong environmental dependence being weakest in dense environments where spheroidal formation was presumably accelerated at early times. We use the trends defined by the cluster sample to define an empirical model based on a high-redshift of formation and estimate that at z~1 about half the field spheroidals must be undergoing recent episodes of star-formation. Using spectral synthesis models, we construct the time dependence of the density of star-formation. Although the samples are currently small, we find evidence for an increase in ρSFR\rho_{SFR} between z=0 to z=1. We discuss the implications of this rise in the context of that observed in the similar rise in the abundance of galaxies with irregular morphology. Regardless of whether there is a connection our results provide strong evidence for the continued formation of field spheroidals over 0<z<1.Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures. To appear in MNRAS in response to referee's Report. Figures and paper also available at http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~fmenante/HDFs

    The Star Formation History of the Hubble Sequence: Spatially Resolved Colour Distributions of Intermediate Redshift Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field

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    We analyse the spatially resolved colours of distant galaxies of known redshift in the Hubble Deep Field, using a new technique based on matching resolved four-band internal colour data to the predictions of evolutionary synthesis models. We quantify the relative age, dispersion in age, ongoing star-formation rate, star-formation history, and dust content of these galaxies. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we study the near-complete sample of 32 I ~ 0.5 studied by Bouwens et al (1997). The dispersion of the internal colours of a sample of 0.4<z<1 early-type field galaxies in the HDF indicates that ~40% [4/11] show evidence of star formation which must have occurred within the past third of their ages at the epoch of observation. For a sample of well-defined spirals, we similarly exploit the dispersion in colour to analyse the relative histories of bulge and disc stars, in order to resolve the current controversy regarding the ages of galactic bulges. Dust and metallicity gradients are ruled out as major contributors to the colour dispersions we observe in these systems. The median ages of bulge stars are found to be signicantly older than those in galactic discs, and exhibit markedly different star-formation histories. This result is inconsistent with a secular growth of bulges from disc instabilities, but consistent with gradual disc formation by accretion of gas onto bulges, as predicted by hierarchical theories. We extend our technique in order to discuss the star formation history of the entire Bouwens et al sample in the context of earlier studies concerned with global star formation histories.Comment: 8 colour postscript figures plus LaTeX source; submitted to MNRAS. Uses the mnras.sty LaTeX style fil
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