21 research outputs found

    Improving College Students' Success In Gateway Science Courses: Lessons Learned From An Anatomy And Physiology Workshop

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    In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a two-week pre-anatomy and physiology workshop intended to contribute to student success in anatomy and physiology. The study showed that workshop participants had significantly higher post-test scores, better study habits, and generally felt more confident or prepared for anatomy and physiology. The workshop participants also reported that they understood membrane transport the least and organization of the body the most, information that may be useful in anatomy and physiology curriculum development. Preliminary studies also show that students that participated in the workshop performed significantly better than the general student body, with lower attrition rates in anatomy and physiology

    Effect of trade receivables and inventory management on SMEs performance

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    This paper investigates the effect of trade receivables and inventory management on SMEs profitability in Malaysia.66 sample of SMEs Manufacturing covering from 2006-2012 was used for the analysis. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression is used to estimate the relationship between independent and dependent variable.The result indicated that days account receivable and inventory turnover in days are negatively related to SME profitability proxies i.e. return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and net operating profit (NOP).The result implies that profitability of SME manufacturing depends upon effective of working capital components management. Therefore, the paper suggests that SME manufacturing can improve their Profitability upon managing working capital properly. Recommendations for future study were also discussed

    Collection of broodstock and juveniles of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii from the wild

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    A total of 457 broodstock and 143,000 juveniles of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii were collected at Isheri Olofin area and Okunmanya River over a period of time. They were transported live to the shrimp hatchery of NIOMR in Lagos. Live transportation of the broodstock of M.vollenhovenii with body weight ranging from 71.0-264.5g in liter-capacity plastic containers half-filled with water, recorded 98-100% survival rate between 80-110 minutes transportation time. However, live transportation of the juvenile in 50 liters capacity plastic containers without water recorded survival rates ranging from 20-66% while those carried with water and aerated recorded 12.5-93.75%. An air conditioned vehicle was used during the live transportation. Higher mortality rate was recorded for the juvenile than the broodstocks due to large number transported in additoin to the small-size gear used for trapping the jiveniles. The study has developed a simple technology for the collection and transportation of live specimens of broodstock and juveniles of M. vollenhovenii. Efforts will be made to increase survival of the juveniles through the use of larger containers and gears

    Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). V. Environmental effects on polysaccharide synthesis in the model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum

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    The effects of phosphate (P) limitation, varying salinity (5-65 psu), and solid media growth conditions on the polysaccharides produced by the model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin were determined. Sequential extraction was used to separate polymers into colloidal (CL), colloidal extracellular polymeric substances (cEPS), hot water soluble (HW), hot bicarbonate soluble (HB), and hot alkali (HA) soluble fractions. Media-soluble polymers (CL and cEPS) were enriched in 4-linked mannosyl, glucosyl, and galactosyl residues as well as terminal and 3-linked xylosyl residues, whereas HW polymers consisted mainly of 3-linked glucosyl as well as terminal and 2,4-linked glucuronosyl residues. The HB fraction was enriched in terminal and 2-linked rhamnosyl residues derived from the mucilage coating solubilized by this treatment. Hot alkali treatment resulted in the complete dissolution of the frustule releasing 2,3- and 3-linked mannosyl residues. The fusiform morphotype predominated in standard and P-limited cultures and cultures subjected to salinity variations, but growth on solid media resulted in an enrichment of the oval morphotype. The proportion and linkages of 15 residues, including neutral, uronic acid, and O-methylated sugars, varied with environmental conditions. P limitation and salinity changes resulted in 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in carbohydrate production, with enrichment of highly branched/substituted and terminal rhamnose, xylose, and fucose as well as O-methylated sugars, uronic acids, and sulfate. The increased deoxy- and O-methylated sugar content under unfavorable environments enhances the hydrophobicity of the polymers, whereas the anionic components may play important roles in ionic cross-linking, suggesting that these changes could ameliorate the effects of salinity or P-stress and that these altered polysaccharide characteristics may be useful as bioindicators for environmental stress. © 2006 Phycological Society of America

    Carboxyl-Terminal Truncations Alter the Activity of the Human α-Galactosidase A

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    <div><p>Fabry disease is an X-linked inborn error of glycolipid metabolism caused by deficiency of the human lysosomal enzyme, α-galactosidase A (αGal), leading to strokes, myocardial infarctions, and terminal renal failure, often leading to death in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The enzyme is responsible for the hydrolysis of terminal α-galactoside linkages in various glycolipids. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been approved for the treatment of Fabry disease, but adverse reactions, including immune reactions, make it desirable to generate improved methods for ERT. One approach to circumvent these adverse reactions is the development of derivatives of the enzyme with more activity per mg. It was previously reported that carboxyl-terminal deletions of 2 to 10 amino acids led to increased activity of about 2 to 6-fold. However, this data was qualitative or semi-quantitative and relied on comparison of the amounts of mRNA present in Northern blots with αGal enzyme activity using a transient expression system in COS-1 cells. Here we follow up on this report by constructing and purifying mutant enzymes with deletions of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 C-terminal amino acids (Δ2, Δ4, Δ6, Δ8, Δ10) for unambiguous quantitative enzyme assays. The results reported here show that the <i>k</i><sub><i>cat</i></sub>/<i>K</i><sub><i>m</i></sub> approximately doubles with deletions of 2, 4, 6 and 10 amino acids (0.8 to 1.7-fold effect) while a deletion of 8 amino acids decreases the <i>k</i><sub><i>cat</i></sub>/<i>K</i><sub><i>m</i></sub> (7.2-fold effect). These results indicate that the mutated enzymes with increased activity constructed here would be expected to have a greater therapeutic effect on a per mg basis, and could therefore reduce the likelihood of adverse infusion related reactions in Fabry patients receiving ERT treatment. These results also illustrate the principle that <i>in vitro</i> mutagenesis can be used to generate αGal derivatives with improved enzyme activity.</p></div

    Literature Values for <i>K</i><sub><i>m</i></sub> and <i>V</i><sub><i>max</i></sub> for the WT Human <i>α</i>Gal.

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    <p>Note. The values given are for the human enzyme purified directly from human tissues or from the indicated recombinant sources. Replagal is produced in human foreskin fibroblasts and Fabrazyme is produced in CHO cells. The average from these literature values are 2.6 ± 0.9mM (<i>K</i><sub><i>m</i></sub>) and 3.2 ± 1.1mmole/hr/mg (<i>V</i><sub><i>max</i></sub>). NA: not available. MUG was used as the substrate to determine the <i>K</i><sub><i>m</i></sub> and <i>V</i><sub><i>max</i></sub> values.</p><p>Literature Values for <i>K</i><sub><i>m</i></sub> and <i>V</i><sub><i>max</i></sub> for the WT Human <i>α</i>Gal.</p

    The C-termini of human and coffee <i>α</i>galactosidase.

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    <p>The crystal structure of human <i>α</i>Gal and a predicted model of the coffee homolog were superimposed. Underlined terminal residues, (MSLKDLL) in humans and (Q) in the coffee bean enzyme, indicate amino acids that could not be modeled due to conformational disorder. The terminal amino acid of the coffee enzyme (glutamine, Q) aligns with (threonine, T) in the human enzyme and is located 9 amino acids (MQMSLKDLL) from the C-terminus of the human enzyme.</p

    Western Blot of purified WT and mutant αGal.

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    <p>Purified WT and mutant enzymes were subjected to Western blotting using a polyclonal antibody raised against residues 55–64 and 396–407 of <i>α</i>Gal. (a) Blot at shorter and (b) longer exposure.</p

    C-terminal Distance from Secondary Binding Site and Opposite Active Site.

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    <p>The homodimeric crystal structure of <i>α</i>Gal (PDB ID 1R47) solved by [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118341#pone.0118341.ref094" target="_blank">94</a>] is displayed in two different perspectives. Distance relationships relative to one out of the two possible C-termini are discussed. The carbon backbone is rendered in a ribbon format. The C-terminus on monomer A is separated by 20 <i>Å</i> to 25 <i>Å</i> from a secondary binding site for <i>β</i>-D-galactopyranose on the same monomer [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0118341#pone.0118341.ref085" target="_blank">85</a>] which is marked by Tyr 329 rendered as spheres. The C-terminus on monomer A is also separated by 45 <i>Å</i> to 50 <i>Å</i> from the active site of monomer B which is marked by the <i>α</i>-D-galactopyranoside ligand also rendered as spheres.</p
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