16 research outputs found

    Morphological and Biochemical Adaptive Changes Associated With A Short-period Starvation of Adult Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Get PDF
    Objective: The morphological and biochemical impact of a short-period of starvation on Japanese quail was investigated. Materials and Methods: Ten adult male Japanese quail were divided into two groups; control fed and starved. The control-fed group was offered food and water ad libitum and the starved group was subjected to a short-period of food deprivation. After 2.5 days, the serum was obtained and different parameters including the total protein, AST, ALT, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, creatinine and urea were assessed. Gastrointestinal tract, stomach and liver were excised and their masses were estimated. Paraffin and resin embedded sections from the proventriculus, gizzard, liver, duodenum, kidney and pancreas were examined with a light microscopy. Results: Significant decreases in the masses of body, gastrointestinal tract, stomach and liver of the starved group were recorded. The liver and duodenum were the most affected organs. The liver showed depletion of glycogen, vacuolation, hyperemia and cellular infiltrations. Duodenal villi showed degenerative changes in lamina epithelialis and cellular infiltrations in the lamina propria. Biochemical analysis revealed a decreased level of total protein, AST and ALT, increased cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and unchanged HDL, urea and creatinine by starvation. Conclusion: The current study described in details the effect of short time starvation on quail organs. Time-point adaptive responses of male quail to starvation and refeeding will be investigated in future studies

    Investigation of the Ameliorating Effect of Copper Albumin Complex on Lysyl oxidase in monosodium iodoacetate -Induced Knee Osteoarthritis in Rats

    Get PDF
    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common type of joint degeneration which causes progressive damage of the joint structure and has less therapeutic options. It has been found that oral consumption of Copper Albumin Complex as anti-inflammatory drug has a positive effect on the treatment of joint deterioration. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of oral administration of Copper Albumin Complex (cu-albumin complex) on Lysyl oxidase (LOX) which acts as a protective factor in KOA. Fifty adult albino rats were divided into 3 groups: negative control (10 normal rats); positive control (20 rats with KOA which left without induction treatment); and treated group (20 rats with KOA which treated with administration of copper albumin complex). Treated and untreated arthritic groups were subdivided equally into mild and severe groups (10 rats for each) according to the severity of clinical signs. KOA was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). At the experimental end, the joints were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically after cervical dislocation of rats. It was observed that the treatment with CU- was effective in reducing disease severity and in improvement of Lysyl oxidase KOA. It was concluded that Copper albumin complex has a positive effect in the improvement of LOX of Knee joint cartilages of rats affected by osteoarthritis (OA)

    Studying the interaction of slit diaphragm and podocyte genes by loss of function approach in immortalized human podocytes

    No full text
    Die Bildung des Prim├Ąrharns findet an der Filtrationsbarriere statt, bestehend aus fenestriertem Endothel, glomerul├Ąrer Basalmembran und Fu├čforts├Ątzen der Podozyten. Eine molekulare Schicht von Transmembranproteinen spannt sich zwischen benachbarten Fu├čforts├Ątzen und formt das Schlitzdiaphragma. Die Integrit├Ąt des Schlitzdiaphragmas ist wichtig f├╝r die Filtration. Es wurden immortalisierte Podozytenzellen benutzt, um die Interaktion der Gene und Proteine des Schlitzdiaphragmas nach Stummschaltung der Podozyten-spezifischen Gene Neph1\it Neph1, Neph2\it Neph2 und Atoh8\it Atoh8 mittels RNAi zu untersuchen. Stummschaltung von Neph1\it Neph1 f├╝hrte zur R├╝ckverteilung des Nephrinproteins ins Zytoplasma der Podozyten, w├Ąhrend Atoh8\it Atoh8-RNAi die Expression von Neph1\it Neph1, (\it Neph2\), Zo1\it Zo1, Nphs1\it Nphs1 und Nphs2\it Nphs2 verringerte. Neph2\it Neph2-RNAi f├╝hrte zu verst├Ąrkter Nephrin Expression. Keine Effekte auf die Podocin Expression wurden nach Neph1\it Neph1- und Neph2\it Neph2-RNAi verzeichnet, w├Ąhrend Atoh8\it Atoh8-RNAi zur Verringerung von Podocin f├╝hrte. Weiterhin wurde die Expression der Podozyten-spezifischen Gene im H├╝hnerembryo gezeigt.The formation of the primary urine occurs at the filtration barrier, composed of fenestrated endothelia, glomerular basement membrane and the podocyte foot processes. A molecular sheet of transmembrane proteins extends between the adjacent foot processes forming the slit diaphragm. The integrity of the slit diaphragm is important for filtration. In this work, immortalized human podocytes were used to study the interaction of these slit diaphragm genes and proteins following silencing of podocyte specific genes Neph1\it Neph1, Neph2\it Neph2 and Atoh8\it Atoh8 by RNAi. Silencing Neph1\it Neph1 led to a redistribution of the nephrin protein in the cytoplasm of the podocyte, while Atoh8\it Atoh8 RNAi caused decrease expression of Neph1\it Neph1, Neph2\it Neph2, Zo1\it Zo1, Nphs1\it Nphs1 and Nphs2\it Nphs2. Neph2\it Neph2 RNAi lead to an increase of nephrin expression. No effects were recorded after Neph1\it Neph1 and Neph2\it Neph2 RNAi on podocin expression. But, Atoh8\it Atoh8 RNAi caused decrease in podocin. I also show the expression of podocyte-specific genes in the developing chicken embryo

    Histogenesis of the Stomach of the Pre-Hatching Quail: A Light Microscopic Study

    No full text
    The current study conducted a careful description of the histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. Daily histological specimens from the quail stomach from day 4 to day 17 post incubation were examined by light microscopy. The primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at day 4 post incubation. The gut tube consisted of an endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type, surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme. The prospective glandular epithelium invaginated at day 5 in the proventriculus and gradually developed to prospective proventricular glands. The muscular coat became distinguished at day 7 and day 8 in the proventriculus and gizzard, respectively. Transformation into simple columnar epithelium occurred in both proventriculus and the gizzard at day 12. The gizzard epithelium gave rise to tubular invaginations also at day 12. Canalization of the gizzard tubular glands was recognized at day 14. By day 15, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in a concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units that contained inactive oxyntico-peptic cells. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared at day 15 to form plicae and sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard at day 17 acquired histological features of post-hatching birds

    Wnt11 Is Required for Oriented Migration of Dermogenic Progenitor Cells from the Dorsomedial Lip of the Avian Dermomyotome

    No full text
    <div><p>The embryonic origin of the dermis in vertebrates can be traced back to the dermomyotome of the somites, the lateral plate mesoderm and the neural crest. The dermal precursors directly overlying the neural tube display a unique dense arrangement and are the first to induce skin appendage formation in vertebrate embryos. These dermal precursor cells have been shown to derive from the dorsomedial lip of the dermomyotome (DML). Based on its expression pattern in the DML, Wnt11 is a candidate regulator of dorsal dermis formation. Using EGFP-based cell labelling and time-lapse imaging, we show that the <i>Wnt11</i> expressing DML is the source of the dense dorsal dermis. Loss-of-function studies in chicken embryos show that <i>Wnt11</i> is indeed essential for the formation of dense dermis competent to support cutaneous appendage formation. Our findings show that dermogenic progenitors cannot leave the DML to form dense dorsal dermis following <i>Wnt11</i> silencing. No alterations were noticeable in the patterning or in the epithelial state of the dermomyotome including the DML. Furthermore, we show that <i>Wnt11</i> expression is regulated in a manner similar to the previously described early dermal marker <i>cDermo-1</i>. The analysis of <i>Wnt11</i> mutant mice exhibits an underdeveloped dorsal dermis and strongly supports our gene silencing data in chicken embryos. We conclude that Wnt11 is required for dense dermis and subsequent cutaneous appendage formation, by influencing the cell fate decision of the cells in the DML.</p></div

    A series of 9 photos of a chicken embryo section electroporated with a control EGFP plasmid at the DML level and reincubated for 24 h.

    No full text
    <p>Each photo shows movement of cells in 1 h time interval. At 0 h the EGFP transfected cells are seen in the DML. At later time points, the dynamics of the transfected cells are visible, with cells moving to the subectodermal space above the neural tube (black arrows), and additionally migrating to the immediate neighbourhood of the neural tube (white arrows) and the myotome. These dynamic movements are characteristic of a normal distribution of DML cells, where DML cells migrate to the subectodermal space in order to form the dorsal dermis and to the myotome to form the muscle. The red outline indicates the DML. Scale bar: 100 ╬╝m.</p

    <i>Wnt11</i> expression in the DML is important for recruitment of dorsal dermal progenitors.

    No full text
    <p>A. EGFP-transfected DML of chicken embryo at stage HH18-19, 20 hours after electroporation. B. The embryo in A after 3 days of reincubation following electroporation. Note the presence of EGFP positive cells in the myotome and region of the future dorsal dermis (dotted circles). The white dotted lines squares delineate the somites. C. Cross-section of the embryo in B. EGFP-positive cells can be seen to be migrating into the subectodermal space overlying the spinal cord (white arrows). D. <i>Wnt11</i> RNAi on chicken embryo. DML of EFGP-<i>Wnt11</i> RNAi construct transfected chicken embryos at HH18-19, 20 hours after electroporation. E. After 3 days of reincubation following electroporation, the EGFP-<i>Wnt11</i> RNAi expressing cells are only to be found in the myotome in a disorganized manner, whereas EGFP-<i>Wnt11</i> RNAi positive cells are missing in the dorsal dermis anlage. F. In cross-section of the embryo in E, only very few cells (nearly undetectable) migrating from DML are present into the subectodermal space (white arrow) overlying the spinal cord (white line). White lines were traced along the neural tube for a better orientation. G. Targeting of the DML at stage HH14-17 by EGFP-<i>Wnt11</i> RNAi constructs after 24 hours reincubation and the corresponding <i>Wnt11</i> silencing as seen by ISH (area between black arrows in H). I. There is no evidence of increased cell death at the sites of EGFP-<i>Wnt11</i> construct transfection as seen by TUNEL staining. J. TUNEL staining of an electroporated embryo with scrambled DNA was used as control for our TUNEL assay. K. Represents the untreated control (Control 2) for TUNEL assay. Photos in I, J, K show the DML of the coressponding sections after TUNEL assay. Black arrows in I, J, K point towards Tunel-positive cells. NT: neural tube. DML: dorso-medial lip. Scale bar: 100 ╬╝m.</p
    corecore