219 research outputs found

    Maternal mental health and infant and young child undernutrition: protocol for a systematic review

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    INTRODUCTION: Mental health disorder, particularly depression, is one of the leading causes of ‘disease related disability’ in women that both affects the women but has adverse effect on their children. This can have an impact on mothers’ capacity of child care which ultimately increases the risk of infection, malnutrition, impaired growth and behavioural problems in children that might extend to adulthood too. Diminished child growth has an irreversible effect both short and long terms, affecting physical growth, brain development, performance in education, working capacity and increased risks to non-communicable diseases. To date, the reviews conducted are only limited to few countries or maternal depression or certain age group of children. Our aim is to provide a global perspective focusing on all early childhood undernutrition (under 5 years) and to see if the association between maternal mental health and child undernutrition has yielded similar or different result. Furthermore, we intend to explore the risk factors associated with copresence of maternal mental health issues and undernutrition in children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Global Health Library Relevant reports from the WHO, United Nations of Children Education Fund and organisations working in maternal and child health will also be searched. Database of systematic reviews and database of abstracts of reviews of effects will also be searched for relevant literature. Papers published from 1995 to 2020 in English will be included. Title, abstract or both will be screened independently by reviewers. For data analysis and synthesis, we will present all the outcomes mentioned in the studies and a subgroup analysis for age and sex will be conducted. This study aims to conduct a meta-analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required to conduct this review. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020189315

    A qualitative exploration of the experiences of pregnant women living with obesity and accessing antenatal care

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    Women are advised to optimise weight before pregnancy. However, many are either already living with overweight or obesity prior to becoming pregnant, increasing the risks for adverse outcomes. Health care professionals (HCP) are responsible for advising women of risks throughout and following pregnancy. However, midwives find broaching the conversation around maternal obesity difficult. This difficulty may be due to insufficient knowledge regarding the management of obesity during pregnancy or because they do not wish to offend. This study explored the experiences of accessing antenatal care in pregnant women living with obesity. Seventeen women completed a semi-structuredinterview. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Four themes were developed:1) antenatal care is inconsistent, 2)additional support is needed, 3) women feel judged about their weight, and 4) weight cycling is highly prevalent. Findings suggest that pregnant women living with obesity often experience weight bias from HCPs, feel judged because of their weight and are left feeling confused andoverlooked. Women reported inconsistencies in advice and care offered,and acknowledged a lack of continuity of care throughout pregnancy. We call for an urgent need for further multidisciplinary training to address the concerns, experiences and needs of pregnant women living with obesity

    Summer Conference on ‘Nutrition at Key Stages of the Life Cycle’:Summer conference, Liverpool.

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    Nutritional requirements of individuals vary across the lifecycle, according to activity,age, and gender. To optimize human health, consideration of nutritional priorities at each stage is needed. This conference brought together multidisciplinary experts in maternal and child nutrition and health, cardiometabolic and plant-based nutrition, and dietitians involved in the care of vulnerable populations, plus nutritional metabolism, health, and ageing. The presentations highlighted the most important nutrition research in these areas, updating knowledge and suggesting how dietary advice and policy could be adapted to incorporate research findings. With the global increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) and nutrition being considered as a key modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of NCD, this conference was much needed

    A Rare Case of Double Belly Soleus Muscle

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    The rare anatomical anomaly of a double belly soleus muscle has been associated with some clinical and non-clinical correlations in patients. With symptomatic patients, usually not presenting until 20–30 years old, pain is exacerbated by long walks, running, and standing for long periods of time. This presentation could mimic the properties of a soft tissue tumor, thus misleading physicians. The discovery of the double belly soleus muscle is noticed while in surgery, biopsy, computed tomography scan, or magnetic resonance imaging machine. We herewith present a rare case of double belly soleus on the left and right posterior lower leg region of a 58-year-old female cadaver. This article will help bring awareness to the signs and symptoms of this rare anatomical anomaly

    A qualitative study exploring midwives’ perceptions and knowledge of maternal obesity. Reflecting on their experiences of providing healthy eating and weight management advice to pregnant women.

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    Midwives are responsible for providing advice regarding the complex issues of healthy eating and weight management during pregnancy. This study utilised an inductive data-driven thematic approach in order to determine midwives’ perceptions, knowledge and experiences of providing healthy eating and weight management advice to pregnant women. Semi-structured interviews with 17 midwives were transcribed verbatim and data subjected to thematic analysis. The findings offer insight into the challenges facing midwives in their role trying to promote healthy eating and appropriate weight management to pregnant women. Three core themes were identified: 1) “If they eat healthily it will bring their weight down”: Midwives Misunderstood; 2) “I don’t think we are experienced enough”: Midwives Lack Resources and Expertise, and 3) “BMI of 32 wouldn’t bother me”: Midwives Normalised Obesity. The midwives recognised the importance of providing healthy eating advice to pregnant women and the health risks associated with poor diet and obesity. However, they reported the normalisation of obesity in pregnant women and suggested that this, together with their high workload and lack of expertise, explained the reasons why systematic advice was not in standard antenatal care. In addition, the current lack of UK clinical guidance, and thus possibly lack of clinical leadership, are also preventing delivery of tailored advice. Implementation literature on understanding the barriers to optimal healthcare delivery and informing clinical practice through research evidence needs to be further investigated in this field. This study has recommendations for policy makers, commissioners, service providers and midwives. Keywords: midwives, pregnancy, obesity, healthy eating, qualitative, self-efficac

    PDX Finder: A portal for patient-derived tumor xenograft model discovery.

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    Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mouse models are a versatile oncology research platform for studying tumor biology and for testing chemotherapeutic approaches tailored to genomic characteristics of individual patients\u27 tumors. PDX models are generated and distributed by a diverse group of academic labs, multi-institution consortia and contract research organizations. The distributed nature of PDX repositories and the use of different metadata standards for describing model characteristics presents a significant challenge to identifying PDX models relevant to specific cancer research questions. The Jackson Laboratory and EMBL-EBI are addressing these challenges by co-developing PDX Finder, a comprehensive open global catalog of PDX models and their associated datasets. Within PDX Finder, model attributes are harmonized and integrated using a previously developed community minimal information standard to support consistent searching across the originating resources. Links to repositories are provided from the PDX Finder search results to facilitate model acquisition and/or collaboration. The PDX Finder resource currently contains information for 1985 PDX models of diverse cancers including those from large resources such as the Patient-Derived Models Repository, PDXNet and EurOPDX. Individuals or organizations that generate and distribute PDXs are invited to increase the \u27findability\u27 of their models by participating in the PDX Finder initiative at www.pdxfinder.org

    Impact of Business Skill Acquisition on Business Performance of Business Education Graduates in Nigeria

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    The researchers investigated the impact of business skill acquisition on business performance of business education graduates in Nigeria. Analytical survey design was adopted for the study involving 200 business education graduates with at least, 5 years of cognate practical experience in business using purposive sampling technique. The research questions were answered using percentages and frequencies while the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistics. The finding revealed that Business Education Graduates in Nigeria acquire business skills and also, the business skills acquired influence their business performance positively. The findings further revealed that the differences in the expected and observed business skills acquired by the business education graduates and the expected and observed influence of the business skills acquired on their business performance are significant at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that business education graduates in Nigeria acquired relevant business skills such as management skills, business plan and project development skills, problem-solving skills, innovation and creativity skill, accounting and record keeping skills, customer loyalty and retention skills, among others. These skills have significant positive improvement on the skills expected of them. More so, the skills are evidently seen in the business performance of business education graduates as indicated by the results from the analyses and findings. Based on the findings, it was recommended that adequate empowerment for business expansion in area of material resources and legal support should be granted to business education graduates by the Federal, State and Local Government to encourage total diligent and full commitment in business establishment and growth.

    Multiple Imputation Ensembles (MIE) for dealing with missing data

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    Missing data is a significant issue in many real-world datasets, yet there are no robust methods for dealing with it appropriately. In this paper, we propose a robust approach to dealing with missing data in classification problems: Multiple Imputation Ensembles (MIE). Our method integrates two approaches: multiple imputation and ensemble methods and compares two types of ensembles: bagging and stacking. We also propose a robust experimental set-up using 20 benchmark datasets from the UCI machine learning repository. For each dataset, we introduce increasing amounts of data Missing Completely at Random. Firstly, we use a number of single/multiple imputation methods to recover the missing values and then ensemble a number of different classifiers built on the imputed data. We assess the quality of the imputation by using dissimilarity measures. We also evaluate the MIE performance by comparing classification accuracy on the complete and imputed data. Furthermore, we use the accuracy of simple imputation as a benchmark for comparison. We find that our proposed approach combining multiple imputation with ensemble techniques outperform others, particularly as missing data increases
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