936 research outputs found

    Bayesian change-point analysis reveals developmental change in a classic theory of mind task

    Get PDF
    Although learning and development reflect changes situated in an individual brain, most discussions of behavioral change are based on the evidence of group averages. Our reliance on group-averaged data creates a dilemma. On the one hand, we need to use traditional inferential statistics. On the other hand, group averages are highly ambiguous when we need to understand change in the individual; the average pattern of change may characterize all, some, or none of the individuals in the group. Here we present a new method for statistically characterizing developmental change in each individual child we study. Using false-belief tasks, fifty-two children in two cohorts were repeatedly tested for varying lengths of time between 3 and 5 years of age. Using a novel Bayesian change point analysis, we determined both the presence and—just as importantly—the absence of change in individual longitudinal cumulative records. Whenever the analysis supports a change conclusion, it identifies in that child’s record the most likely point at which change occurred. Results show striking variability in patterns of change and stability across individual children. We then group the individuals by their various patterns of change or no change. The resulting patterns provide scarce support for sudden changes in competence and shed new light on the concepts of "passing" and "failing" in developmental studies.National Science Foundation (Grant IDs: BCS-0725169, BCS-0922184), Economic and Social Research Counci

    Vitamin D Supplementation and Pain-Related Emergency Department Visits in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    Get PDF
    Objectives: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent inherited hematological disorder and affects 100,000 individuals in the United States. Pain is the most common cause of emergency department (ED) visits in the SCD population, which profoundly affects quality of life. Vitamin D supplementation is a potential target for reducing pain. Thus, the goal of the present study was to identify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and explore the relationship between vitamin D supplementation and ED visits in pediatric patients with SCD. / Design: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 110 patients with SCD aged 8 to 16 years who had at least one ED visit for SCD pain during the 6-year study period. Patients were categorized into three vitamin D supplementation groups: patients who did not receive supplementation, patients supplemented with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (< 30 ng/mL), and patients supplemented with at least one sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (≥ 30 ng/mL). / Results: Overall, 45% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Only 20% of patients had sufficient vitamin D levels. This number increased to 55% when examining only patients who did not receive vitamin D supplementation. For patients supplemented with vitamin D, the number of ED visits was significantly lower after they reached the sufficient range (≥ 30 ng/mL), p = .03. / Conclusions: Our findings indicate that reductions in the number of pain-related ED visits may be achieved by normalizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with supplementation. In addition, findings highlight the need for screening and vitamin D supplementation being incorporated into routine care for pediatric patients with SCD

    The influence of perceived racial bias and health-related stigma on quality of life among children with sickle cell disease

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVES: Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience significant health problems that may result in unpredictable pain episodes and frequent healthcare utilization. Disparities in clinical care may contribute to health-related stigma and racial bias for this majority African-American/Black population. There is less known about the influence of health-related stigma and racial bias on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with SCD. In the present study, we assessed these relationships and identified differences across demographic factors (i.e. age, gender). DESIGN: Data was collected from African American children with SCD aged 8–16 years (57% male, 63% HbSS). Children completed the Childhood Stigma Scale (adapted for SCD), the Child Perceptions of Racism in Children and Youth scale, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Sickle Cell Disease Module. Caregivers provided demographic information. RESULTS: In the first regression model, health-related stigma (p = .007) predicted HRQOL, but neither age nor gender were significant predictors. In the second regression model, age (p = .03) predicted HRQOL, but neither gender nor racial bias were significant predictors. Of interest, there was a significant interaction between age, gender, and racial bias (p = .02). Specifically, older girls who reported high levels of perceived racial bias had poorer HRQOL. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the need for increased awareness about the effects of health-related stigma and racial bias on HRQOL for children with SCD, particularly for older girls who endorse racial bias. Our findings will guide future stigma and bias reduction interventions that may meet the needs of older girls with SCD

    Mobile health use predicts self-efficacy and self-management in adolescents with sickle cell disease

    Get PDF
    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with significant health challenges that often worsen during adolescence. Living with SCD requires a substantial amount of self-management and mobile health (mHealth) holds considerable promise for assessing and changing behaviors to improve health outcomes. We integrated a mobile app as an adjunct to a group intervention (SCThrive) and hypothesized that more engagement with the mHealth app would increase self-management and self-efficacy for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with SCD. Twenty-six AYA ages 13–21 years (54% female; 46% HbSS genotype; all African-American/Black) received six weekly group sessions (three in-person, three online). Participants were provided with the mobile app (iManage for SCD) to record progress on their self-management goals and log pain and mood symptoms. The Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ-5) assessed self-management skills and the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13) assessed self-efficacy at baseline and post-treatment. Logging on to the app more frequently was associated higher mood ratings (r = .54, CI[.18, .77], p = .006) and lower pain ratings (r = −.48, CI[−.77, −.02], p = .04). Regression analyses demonstrated that after controlling for scores at baseline, the number of logins to the app predicted self-management skills (p = .05, η2 = .17) and possibly self-efficacy (p = .08, η2 = .13). Our study findings indicate that it can be challenging to maintain engagement in mHealth for AYA with SCD, but for those who do engage, there are significant benefits related to self-management, self-efficacy, and managing pain and mood

    An Immersive Virtual Reality Curriculum for Pediatric Hematology Clinicians on Shared Decision-making for Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Get PDF
    Although hydroxyurea (HU) is an effective treatment for sickle cell anemia, uptake remains low. Shared decision-making (SDM) is a recommended strategy for HU initiation to elicit family preferences; however, clinicians lack SDM training. We implemented an immersive virtual reality (VR) curriculum at 8 pediatric institutions to train clinicians on SDM that included counseling virtual patients. Clinicians’ self-reported confidence significantly improved following the VR simulations on all communication skills assessed, including asking open-ended questions, eliciting specific concerns, and confirming understanding (Ps≤0.01 for all). VR may be an effective method for educating clinicians to engage in SDM for HU