1,374 research outputs found

    Correlation between Modified Bloom Richardson Grade and Lymph Nodal Status in Infiltrating Ductal Type of Breast Carcinoma

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    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Among the various types, invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), not otherwise specified (NOS) is the most common type. This study was conducted to describe the clinico-pathological parameters of breast cancer, and to find a correlation between two of the prognostic parameters, i.e., Bloom Richardson (BR) grade and lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study with a sample size of 100 cases. Routine clinical details and investigations of the patients were recorded, including age, TNM stage of tumour, etc. Further, the specimens were evaluated for the histological typing, histological grading, and status of lymph nodes. Also, statistical correlations were established between two of the prognostic parameters, i.e., BR grade and lymph node metastasis. Results: All the cases were NOS type of IDC. Majority of the cases belonged to pTNM stage III, followed by stage II. Maximum cases belonged to BR grade 2, followed by grade 3. Lymph node metastasis was present in 40% cases. A statistically significant correlation was seen between increasing BR grade and presence of lymph node metastasis in the tumour. Discussion and Conclusion: Majority of the cases in our study belong to high grade and stage. This is probably due to lack of awareness and late detection of breast carcinoma in Indian scenario. A statistically significant correlation was found between increasing BR grade and presence of lymph node metastasis in the tumour. Thus, these can be used along with other clinico-pathological parameters for prognostic and therapeutic planning in breast carcinoma cases

    ELICITATION OF TRIGONELLINE, A HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT IN FENUGREEK SPROUTS BY CALCIUM AND NITRIC OXIDE PRIMING

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    Objective: This work was performed to evaluate the effect of priming with exogenous sources of calcium ion and nitric oxide on the antidiabeticactivity and the alkaloid contents of fenugreek sprouts along with isolation and identification of trigonelline, a bioactive alkaloid responsible for hypoglycemic property of fenugreek.Methods: The fenugreek seeds were pre-treated with calcium chloride (CC), lanthanum chloride (LC) a calcium channel blocker; ethylene glycol-bis (2-aminoethylether) -N, N, N´, N tetra acetic acid (EG) a calcium chelator; sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl) -4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CP) a nitric oxide scavenger and germinated for 72 hrs. The sprout extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antidiabetic potential by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition along with their trigonelline content. Trigonelline was isolated from fenugreek sprouts and identified by Infrared analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.Results: The results revealed that sprouts pre-treated with CC and SNP exhibited enhanced antidiabetic potential as well as alkaloid content overcontrol; on the other hand, their action was reversed by their antagonists, EG, LC, and CP. The sprouts pre-treated with 2mM CC showed the best elicitation of alkaloid content and antidiabetic activity followed by SNP-20 mM.Conclusions: The study suggests probable involvement of the signaling molecules, calcium ion, and nitric oxide in pathways associated withbiosynthesis of bioactive compounds responsible for hypoglycemic activity of fenugreek sprouts one of which being trigonelline. Â

    Alu-miRNA interactions modulate transcript isoform diversity in stress response and reveal signatures of positive selection

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    Primate-specific Alus harbor different regulatory features, including miRNA targets. In this study, we provide evidence for miRNA-mediated modulation of transcript isoform levels during heat-shock response through exaptation of Alu-miRNA sites in mature mRNA. We performed genome-wide expression profiling coupled with functional validation of miRNA target sites within exonized Alus, and analyzed conservation of these targets across primates. We observed that two miRNAs (miR-15a-3p and miR-302d-3p) elevated in stress response, target RAD1, GTSE1, NR2C1, FKBP9 and UBE2I exclusively within Alu. These genes map onto the p53 regulatory network. Ectopic overexpression of miR-15a-3p downregulates GTSE1 and RAD1 at the protein level and enhances cell survival. This Alu-mediated fine-tuning seems to be unique to humans as evident from the absence of orthologous sites in other primate lineages. We further analyzed signatures of selection on Alu-miRNA targets in the genome, using 1000 Genomes Phase-I data. We found that 198 out of 3177 Alu-exonized genes exhibit signatures of selection within Alu-miRNA sites, with 60 of them containing SNPs supported by multiple evidences (global-FST > 0.3, pair-wise-FST > 0.5, Fay-Wu's H  2.0, high ΔDAF) and implicated in p53 network. We propose that by affecting multiple genes, Alu-miRNA interactions have the potential to facilitate population-level adaptations in response to environmental challenges

    Optimization of DNA extraction for ISSR studies in Tectona grandis L.f. - an important forest tree species

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    Four extraction methods and sample types were evaluated for yield, quality and suitability of genomic DNA for ISSR marker amplification in teak (Tectona grandis). Both CTAB and SDS based extraction procedures extracted better quantity and purity index of genomic DNA. Leaves of trees, bud grafts andseedlings yielded better DNA than seeds. Using identical PCR conditions, DNA extraction methods and sample types influenced amplifications of ISSR markers, with no amplifications among seed samples. DNA extraction method and sample type are very important consideration for reproducible ISSR-based molecular marker analysis in tea

    Human pericardium graft in the management of bleb's complication performed in childhood: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>To report a case with hypotony due to late leakage of the filtering bleb performed during childhood and treated surgically using human pericardium graft.</p> <p>Case Presentation</p> <p>A man with hypotony related to bleb's leakage in his right eye was presented. During his childhood trabeculectomy was performed to manage ocular hypertension due to pediatric glaucoma. Biomicroscopy revealed choroidal tissue incarcerated in the sclerectomy under the conjunctiva. Bleb revision was performed. Human pericardium graft was used to cover the sclerectomy and a new bleb with controlled outflow was created. The intraocular pressure (IOP) and Seidel test represent the main outcomes. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Fifteen days postoperatively the IOP was of 7 mmHg and the bleb seemed to filter properly. Five months later the IOP was 9 mmHg and no complications were noticed. During the follow up time, the Seidel test was negative.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We used human pericardium graft with no complications in a case of bleb leakage performed for pediatric glaucoma.</p

    Comparison of a novel combination of bio-organic fertilizers vis-à-vis a chemical fertilizer

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    197-204Plant nutrients are essential for the production of healthy crops for the world’s expanding population and thus, they are a vital component of sustainable agriculture. Increased crop production depends on the type of fertilizers used to supplement essential nutrients for plants. The nutrient level fertilizers provide depends on their nature- each type of fertilizer has its advantages and disadvantages concerning crop growth and soil fertility. The management of using fertilizer must aim to ensure both an enhanced and safeguarded environment. Thus, a balanced fertilization strategy must be implemented. An experiment was conducted under field conditions to assess the effects of combinations of bio-fertilizers on agronomic and quality criteria of Brassica juncea (brown mustard), Basella alba (climbing spinach), and Amaranthus dubius (red spinach). Randomized block design with three replicas were used for the study, one set with the application of fertilizers containing Azotobacter, Rhizobium, Sesbania, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Glomus (Mycorrhizal inoculant)- under bio-fertilizer; another with a mixture of urea, Potassium Nitrate, Super Phosphate, Potassium Sulfate, and Maple EM solution as chemical fertilizer and a control (water). Results indicated that yield and other plant criteria like chlorophyll content and gel volume were enhanced in bio-fertilizer treated plants compared to the plants grown with chemical fertilizer and control. In general, the application of bio-fertilizer significantly increased leaf length by 16-50%, the total number of leaves by 50-80%, plant size 19.15-63.15%, and gel volume by 147% (approximately) in comparison with untreated plants

    Decolorization of synthetic melanoidins-containing wastewater by a bacterial consortium

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    The presence of melanoidins in molasses wastewater leads to water pollution both due to its dark brown color and its COD contents. In this study, a bacterial consortium isolated from waterfall sediment was tested for its decolorization. The identification of culturable bacteria by 16S rDNA based approach showed that the consortium composed of Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia mercescens, Citrobacter sp. and unknown bacterium. In the context of academic study, prevention on the difficulties of providing effluent as well as its variations in compositions, several synthetic media prepared with respect to color and COD contents based on analysis of molasses wastewater, i.e., Viandox sauce (13.5% v/v), caramel (30% w/v), beet molasses wastewater (41.5% v/v) and sugarcane molasses wastewater (20% v/v) were used for decolorization using consortium with color removal 9.5, 1.13, 8.02 and 17.5%, respectively, within 2 days. However, Viandox sauce was retained for further study. The effect of initial pH and Viandox concentration on decolorization and growth of bacterial consortium were further determined. The highest decolorization of 18.3% was achieved at pH 4 after 2 day of incubation. Experiments on fresh or used medium and used or fresh bacterial cells, led to conclusion that the limitation of decolorization was due to nutritional deficiency. The effect of aeration on decolorization was also carried out in 2 L laboratory-scale suspended cell bioreactor. The maximum decolorization was 19.3% with aeration at KLa = 2.5836 h-1 (0.1 vvm)
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