573 research outputs found

### Naked Singularity in a Modified Gravity Theory

The cosmological constant induced by quantum fluctuation of the graviton on a
given background is considered as a tool for building a spectrum of different
geometries. In particular, we apply the method to the Schwarzschild background
with positive and negative mass parameter. In this way, we put on the same
level of comparison the related naked singularity (-M) and the positive mass
wormhole. We discuss how to extract information in the context of a f(R)
theory. We use the Wheeler-De Witt equation as a basic equation to perform such
an analysis regarded as a Sturm-Liouville problem . The application of the same
procedure used for the ordinary theory, namely f(R)=R, reveals that to this
approximation level, it is not possible to classify the Schwarzschild and its
naked partner into a geometry spectrum.Comment: 8 Pages. Contribution given to DICE 2008. To appear in the
proceeding

### Evidence for a Positive Cosmological Constant from Flows of Galaxies and Distant Supernovae

Recent observations of high-redshift supernovae seem to suggest that the
global geometry of the Universe may be affected by a `cosmological constant',
which acts to accelerate the expansion rate with time. But these data by
themselves still permit an open universe of low mass density and no
cosmological constant. Here we derive an independent constraint on the lower
bound to the mass density, based on deviations of galaxy velocities from a
smooth universal expansion. This constraint rules out a low-density open
universe with a vanishing cosmological constant, and together the two favour a
nearly flat universe in which the contributions from mass density and the
cosmological constant are comparable. This type of universe, however, seems to
require a degree of fine tuning of the initial conditions that is in apparent
conflict with `common wisdom'.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure. Slightly revised version. Letter to Natur

### Cosmological Relativity: A General-Relativistic Theory for the Accelerating Expanding Universe

Recent observations of distant supernovae imply, in defiance of expectations,
that the universe growth is accelerating, contrary to what has always been
assumed that the expansion is slowing down due to gravity. In this paper a
general-relativistic cosmological theory that gives a direct relationship
between distances and redshifts in an expanding universe is presented. The
theory is actually a generalization of Hubble's law taking gravity into account
by means of Einstein's theory of general relativity. The theory predicts that
the universe can have three phases of expansion, decelerating, constant and
accelerating, but it is shown that at present the first two cases are excluded,
although in the past it had experienced them. Our theory shows that the
universe now is definitely in the stage of accelerating expansion, confirming
the recent experimental results

### SN 2005hj: Evidence for Two Classes of Normal-Bright SNe Ia and Implications for Cosmology

HET Optical spectra covering the evolution from about 6 days before to about
5 weeks after maximum light and the ROTSE-IIIb unfiltered light curve of the
"Branch-normal" Type Ia Supernova SN 2005hj are presented. The host galaxy
shows HII region lines at redshift of z=0.0574, which puts the peak unfiltered
absolute magnitude at a somewhat over-luminous -19.6. The spectra show weak and
narrow SiII lines, and for a period of at least 10 days beginning around
maximum light these profiles do not change in width or depth and they indicate
a constant expansion velocity of ~10,600 km/s. We analyzed the observations
based on detailed radiation dynamical models in the literature. Whereas delayed
detonation and deflagration models have been used to explain the majority of
SNe Ia, they do not predict a long velocity plateau in the SiII minimum with an
unvarying line profile. Pulsating delayed detonations and merger scenarios form
shell-like density structures with properties mostly related to the mass of the
shell, M_shell, and we discuss how these models may explain the observed SiII
line evolution; however, these models are based on spherical calculations and
other possibilities may exist. SN 2005hj is consistent with respect to the
onset, duration, and velocity of the plateau, the peak luminosity and, within
the uncertainties, with the intrinsic colors for models with M_shell=0.2 M_sun.
Our analysis suggests a distinct class of events hidden within the
Branch-normal SNe Ia. If the predicted relations between observables are
confirmed, they may provide a way to separate these two groups. We discuss the
implications of two distinct progenitor classes on cosmological studies
employing SNe Ia, including possible differences in the peak luminosity to
light curve width relation.Comment: ApJ accepted, 31 page

### Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy
(cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various
astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity)
in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the
cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the
critical scale $r_c$ beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics ($r_c \sim
1Mpc$) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that
dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond
are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss
possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied
on relatively small scales (a few $Mpc$) to determine the density and equation
of state of dark energy.Comment: Contributed talk at the 2nd Hellenic Cosmology Workshop at NOA
(Athens) Jan. 2001.To appear in the proceedings. Based on work done in
collaboration with M. Axenides and E. Florato

### Type IIn supernovae at z ~ 2 from archival data

Supernovae have been confirmed to redshift z ~ 1.7 for type Ia (thermonuclear
detonation of a white dwarf) and to z ~ 0.7 for type II (collapse of the core
of the star). The subclass type IIn supernovae are luminous core-collapse
explosions of massive stars and, unlike other types, are very bright in the
ultraviolet, which should enable them to be found optically at redshifts z ~ 2
and higher. In addition, the interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar
material creates strong, long-lived emission lines that allow spectroscopic
confirmation of many events of this type at z ~ 2 for 3 - 5 years after
explosion. Here we report three spectroscopically confirmed type IIn
supernovae, at redshifts z = 0.808, 2.013 and 2.357, detected in archival data
using a method designed to exploit these properties at z ~ 2. Type IIn
supernovae directly probe the formation of massive stars at high redshift. The
number found to date is consistent with the expectations of a locally measured
stellar initial mass function, but not with an evolving initial mass function
proposed to explain independent observations at low and high redshift.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures, includes supplementary informatio

### BEAMS: separating the wheat from the chaff in supernova analysis

We introduce Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS), an
algorithm designed to deal with parameter estimation when using contaminated
data. We present the algorithm and demonstrate how it works with the help of a
Gaussian simulation. We then apply it to supernova data from the Sloan Digital
Sky Survey (SDSS), showing how the resulting confidence contours of the
cosmological parameters shrink significantly.Comment: 23 pages, 9 figures. Chapter 4 in "Astrostatistical Challenges for
the New Astronomy" (Joseph M. Hilbe, ed., Springer, New York, forthcoming in
2012), the inaugural volume for the Springer Series in Astrostatistic

### Broad Brush Cosmos

An innovative approach to map the large-scale structure in the Universe
sidesteps the conventional need to observe millions of galaxies individually,
and holds promise for both astrophysical and cosmological studies.Comment: Invited Nature 'News and Views' Commentary on Chang et al. 2010,
Nature, 466, 463; 6pages, 1 figur

### The Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Big Bang singularities are well behaved

We show that the Big Bang singularity of the
Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model does not raise major problems to
General Relativity. We prove a theorem showing that the Einstein equation can
be written in a non-singular form, which allows the extension of the spacetime
before the Big Bang. The physical interpretation of the fields used is
discussed. These results follow from our research on singular semi-Riemannian
geometry and singular General Relativity.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

### F(T) gravity and k-essence

Modified teleparallel gravity theory with the torsion scalar have recently
gained a lot of attention as a possible explanation of dark energy. We perform
a thorough reconstruction analysis on the so-called $F(T)$ models, where $F(T)$
is some general function of the torsion term, and derive conditions for the
equivalence between of $F(T)$ models with purely kinetic k-essence. We present
a new class models of $F(T)$-gravity and k-essence. We also proposed some new
models of generalized gases and knot universes as well as some generalizations
of $F(T)$ gravity.Comment: 25 page

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