573 research outputs found

    Naked Singularity in a Modified Gravity Theory

    Full text link
    The cosmological constant induced by quantum fluctuation of the graviton on a given background is considered as a tool for building a spectrum of different geometries. In particular, we apply the method to the Schwarzschild background with positive and negative mass parameter. In this way, we put on the same level of comparison the related naked singularity (-M) and the positive mass wormhole. We discuss how to extract information in the context of a f(R) theory. We use the Wheeler-De Witt equation as a basic equation to perform such an analysis regarded as a Sturm-Liouville problem . The application of the same procedure used for the ordinary theory, namely f(R)=R, reveals that to this approximation level, it is not possible to classify the Schwarzschild and its naked partner into a geometry spectrum.Comment: 8 Pages. Contribution given to DICE 2008. To appear in the proceeding

    Evidence for a Positive Cosmological Constant from Flows of Galaxies and Distant Supernovae

    Full text link
    Recent observations of high-redshift supernovae seem to suggest that the global geometry of the Universe may be affected by a `cosmological constant', which acts to accelerate the expansion rate with time. But these data by themselves still permit an open universe of low mass density and no cosmological constant. Here we derive an independent constraint on the lower bound to the mass density, based on deviations of galaxy velocities from a smooth universal expansion. This constraint rules out a low-density open universe with a vanishing cosmological constant, and together the two favour a nearly flat universe in which the contributions from mass density and the cosmological constant are comparable. This type of universe, however, seems to require a degree of fine tuning of the initial conditions that is in apparent conflict with `common wisdom'.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure. Slightly revised version. Letter to Natur

    Cosmological Relativity: A General-Relativistic Theory for the Accelerating Expanding Universe

    Get PDF
    Recent observations of distant supernovae imply, in defiance of expectations, that the universe growth is accelerating, contrary to what has always been assumed that the expansion is slowing down due to gravity. In this paper a general-relativistic cosmological theory that gives a direct relationship between distances and redshifts in an expanding universe is presented. The theory is actually a generalization of Hubble's law taking gravity into account by means of Einstein's theory of general relativity. The theory predicts that the universe can have three phases of expansion, decelerating, constant and accelerating, but it is shown that at present the first two cases are excluded, although in the past it had experienced them. Our theory shows that the universe now is definitely in the stage of accelerating expansion, confirming the recent experimental results

    SN 2005hj: Evidence for Two Classes of Normal-Bright SNe Ia and Implications for Cosmology

    Get PDF
    HET Optical spectra covering the evolution from about 6 days before to about 5 weeks after maximum light and the ROTSE-IIIb unfiltered light curve of the "Branch-normal" Type Ia Supernova SN 2005hj are presented. The host galaxy shows HII region lines at redshift of z=0.0574, which puts the peak unfiltered absolute magnitude at a somewhat over-luminous -19.6. The spectra show weak and narrow SiII lines, and for a period of at least 10 days beginning around maximum light these profiles do not change in width or depth and they indicate a constant expansion velocity of ~10,600 km/s. We analyzed the observations based on detailed radiation dynamical models in the literature. Whereas delayed detonation and deflagration models have been used to explain the majority of SNe Ia, they do not predict a long velocity plateau in the SiII minimum with an unvarying line profile. Pulsating delayed detonations and merger scenarios form shell-like density structures with properties mostly related to the mass of the shell, M_shell, and we discuss how these models may explain the observed SiII line evolution; however, these models are based on spherical calculations and other possibilities may exist. SN 2005hj is consistent with respect to the onset, duration, and velocity of the plateau, the peak luminosity and, within the uncertainties, with the intrinsic colors for models with M_shell=0.2 M_sun. Our analysis suggests a distinct class of events hidden within the Branch-normal SNe Ia. If the predicted relations between observables are confirmed, they may provide a way to separate these two groups. We discuss the implications of two distinct progenitor classes on cosmological studies employing SNe Ia, including possible differences in the peak luminosity to light curve width relation.Comment: ApJ accepted, 31 page

    Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

    Full text link
    We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy (cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity) in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the critical scale rcr_c beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics (rc‚ąľ1Mpcr_c \sim 1Mpc ) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied on relatively small scales (a few MpcMpc) to determine the density and equation of state of dark energy.Comment: Contributed talk at the 2nd Hellenic Cosmology Workshop at NOA (Athens) Jan. 2001.To appear in the proceedings. Based on work done in collaboration with M. Axenides and E. Florato

    Type IIn supernovae at z ~ 2 from archival data

    Full text link
    Supernovae have been confirmed to redshift z ~ 1.7 for type Ia (thermonuclear detonation of a white dwarf) and to z ~ 0.7 for type II (collapse of the core of the star). The subclass type IIn supernovae are luminous core-collapse explosions of massive stars and, unlike other types, are very bright in the ultraviolet, which should enable them to be found optically at redshifts z ~ 2 and higher. In addition, the interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material creates strong, long-lived emission lines that allow spectroscopic confirmation of many events of this type at z ~ 2 for 3 - 5 years after explosion. Here we report three spectroscopically confirmed type IIn supernovae, at redshifts z = 0.808, 2.013 and 2.357, detected in archival data using a method designed to exploit these properties at z ~ 2. Type IIn supernovae directly probe the formation of massive stars at high redshift. The number found to date is consistent with the expectations of a locally measured stellar initial mass function, but not with an evolving initial mass function proposed to explain independent observations at low and high redshift.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures, includes supplementary informatio

    BEAMS: separating the wheat from the chaff in supernova analysis

    Full text link
    We introduce Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS), an algorithm designed to deal with parameter estimation when using contaminated data. We present the algorithm and demonstrate how it works with the help of a Gaussian simulation. We then apply it to supernova data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), showing how the resulting confidence contours of the cosmological parameters shrink significantly.Comment: 23 pages, 9 figures. Chapter 4 in "Astrostatistical Challenges for the New Astronomy" (Joseph M. Hilbe, ed., Springer, New York, forthcoming in 2012), the inaugural volume for the Springer Series in Astrostatistic

    Broad Brush Cosmos

    Full text link
    An innovative approach to map the large-scale structure in the Universe sidesteps the conventional need to observe millions of galaxies individually, and holds promise for both astrophysical and cosmological studies.Comment: Invited Nature 'News and Views' Commentary on Chang et al. 2010, Nature, 466, 463; 6pages, 1 figur

    The Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Big Bang singularities are well behaved

    Full text link
    We show that the Big Bang singularity of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model does not raise major problems to General Relativity. We prove a theorem showing that the Einstein equation can be written in a non-singular form, which allows the extension of the spacetime before the Big Bang. The physical interpretation of the fields used is discussed. These results follow from our research on singular semi-Riemannian geometry and singular General Relativity.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    F(T) gravity and k-essence

    Full text link
    Modified teleparallel gravity theory with the torsion scalar have recently gained a lot of attention as a possible explanation of dark energy. We perform a thorough reconstruction analysis on the so-called F(T)F(T) models, where F(T)F(T) is some general function of the torsion term, and derive conditions for the equivalence between of F(T)F(T) models with purely kinetic k-essence. We present a new class models of F(T)F(T)-gravity and k-essence. We also proposed some new models of generalized gases and knot universes as well as some generalizations of F(T)F(T) gravity.Comment: 25 page
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore