4,861 research outputs found

    Higher resources decrease fluctuating selection during host-parasite coevolution

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    This is the final version of the article. Available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.We still know very little about how the environment influences coevolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigated both theoretically and empirically how nutrient availability affects the relative extent of escalation of resistance and infectivity (arms race dynamic; ARD) and fluctuating selection (fluctuating selection dynamic; FSD) in experimentally coevolving populations of bacteria and viruses. By comparing interactions between clones of bacteria and viruses both within- and between-time points, we show that increasing nutrient availability resulted in coevolution shifting from FSD, with fluctuations in average infectivity and resistance ranges over time, to ARD. Our model shows that range fluctuations with lower nutrient availability can be explained both by elevated costs of resistance (a direct effect of nutrient availability), and reduced benefits of resistance when population sizes of hosts and parasites are lower (an indirect effect). Nutrient availability can therefore predictably and generally affect qualitative coevolutionary dynamics by both direct and indirect (mediated through ecological feedbacks) effects on costs of resistance.This work was funded by NERC (UK). ABu was supported by the Royal Society and ABe by a the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellowship

    The First Model-Based Geostatistical Map of Anaemia

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    Abdisalan Noor discusses new research in <i>PLoS Medicine<I> that used model-based geostatistics to investigate the risks of anemia among preschool-aged children in West Africa that were attributable to malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections

    Building capacity for public and population health research in Africa : the consortium for advanced research training in Africa (CARTA) model

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    Background: Globally, sub-Saharan Africa bears the greatest burden of disease. Strengthened research capacity to understand the social determinants of health among different African populations is key to addressing the drivers of poor health and developing interventions to improve health outcomes and health systems in the region. Yet, the continent clearly lacks centers of research excellence that can generate a strong evidence base to address the region’s socio-economic and health problems. Objective and program overview: We describe the recently launched Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa (CARTA), which brings together a network of nine academic and four research institutions from West, East, Central, and Southern Africa, and select northern universities and training institutes. CARTA’s program of activities comprises two primary, interrelated, and mutually reinforcing objectives: to strengthen research infrastructure and capacity at African universities; and to support doctoral training through the creation of a collaborative doctoral training program in population and public health. The ultimate goal of CARTA is to build local research capacity to understand the determinants of population health and effectively intervene to improve health outcomes and health systems. Conclusions: CARTA’s focus on the local production of networked and high-skilled researchers committed to working in sub-Saharan Africa, and on the concomitant increase in local research and training capacity of African universities and research institutes addresses the inability of existing programs to create a critical mass of well-trained and networked researchers across the continent. The initiative’s goal of strengthening human resources and university-wide systems critical to the success and sustainability of research productivity in public and population health will rejuvenate institutional teaching, research, and administrative systems

    Alpha-particle clustering in excited expanding self-conjugate nuclei

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    The fragmentation of quasi-projectiles from the nuclear reaction 40Ca + 12C at 25 MeV/nucleon was used to produce alpha-emission sources. From a careful selection of these sources provided by a complete detection and from comparisons with models of sequential and simultaneous decays, strong indications in favour of α\alpha-particle clustering in excited 16O, 20Ne and 24}Mg are reported.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus collisions (NN2015), 21-26 June 2015, Catania, Ital

    Remembering the forgotten non-communicable diseases

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    The forthcoming post-Millennium Development Goals era will bring about new challenges in global health. Low- and middle-income countries will have to contend with a dual burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Some of these NCDs, such as neoplasms, COPD, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, cause much health loss worldwide and are already widely recognised as doing so. However, 55% of the global NCD burden arises from other NCDs, which tend to be ignored in terms of premature mortality and quality of life reduction. Here, experts in some of these 'forgotten NCDs' review the clinical impact of these diseases along with the consequences of their ignoring their medical importance, and discuss ways in which they can be given higher global health priority in order to decrease the growing burden of disease and disability.MerckUniv Melbourne, Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic 3053, AustraliaUniv London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, St Marys Hosp, Dept Med, London W2 1NY, EnglandKEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, KenyaUniv British Columbia, St Pauls Hosp, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y8, CanadaVA Med Ctr, Med Serv, Birmingham, AL USAVA Med Ctr, Ctr Surg Med Acute Care Res & Transit, Birmingham, AL USAUniv Alabama Birmingham, Sch Med, Dept Med, Birmingham, AL 35294 USAUniv Alabama Birmingham, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL 35294 USAMayo Clin, Coll Med, Dept Orthoped Surg, Rochester, MN 55905 USAUniv London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, London, EnglandCtr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, CanadaTech Univ Dresden, D-01062 Dresden, GermanyUniv Toronto, Dalla Lana Sch Publ Hlth, Toronto, ON, CanadaUniv Toronto, Dept Psychiat, Toronto, ON, CanadaUofT, Inst Med Sci, Toronto, ON, CanadaNIDA, NIH, Rockville, MD USANIAAA, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USAHosp Alemao Oswaldo Cruz, Inst Educ & Hlth Sci, BR-01323903 São Paulo, BrazilUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista Med, Dept Psychobiol, BR-04023062 São Paulo, BrazilUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista Med, Dept Psychobiol, BR-04023062 São Paulo, BrazilWeb of Scienc

    Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei

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    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central 129^{129}Xe + nat^{nat}Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4-12 AMeV [Nucl. Phys. A809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures, accepted in Physics Letters

    Global and regional estimates of cancer mortality and incidence by site: II. results for the global burden of disease 2000

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    BACKGROUND: Mortality estimates alone are not sufficient to understand the true magnitude of cancer burden. We present the detailed estimates of mortality and incidence by site as the basis for the future estimation of cancer burden for the Global Burden of Disease 2000 study. METHODS: Age- and sex- specific mortality envelope for all malignancies by region was derived from the analysis of country life-tables and cause of death. We estimated the site-specific cancer mortality distributions from vital records and cancer survival model. The regional cancer mortality by site is estimated by disaggregating the regional cancer mortality envelope based on the mortality distribution. Estimated incidence-to-mortality rate ratios were used to back calculate the final cancer incidence estimates by site. RESULTS: In 2000, cancer accounted for over 7 million deaths (13% of total mortality) and there were more than 10 million new cancer cases world wide in 2000. More than 60% of cancer deaths and approximately half of new cases occurred in developing regions. Lung cancer was the most common cancers in the world, followed by cancers of stomach, liver, colon and rectum, and breast. There was a significant variations in the distribution of site-specific cancer mortality and incidence by region. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a regional variation, the most common cancers are potentially preventable. Cancer burden estimation by taking into account both mortality and morbidity is an essential step to set research priorities and policy formulation. Also it can used for setting priorities when combined with data on costs of interventions against cancers
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