48 research outputs found

    Comportement et performance des banques face à l’asymétrie d’information

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    Islamic banks are attracting more and more interest from professionals and academics, first of all, by their resistance to the subprime crisis and then by their participative financial intermediation which shows significant results. This follows from its founding principle, which is sharing. The specific financial intermediation of Islamic banks is subject to information asymmetry, which is crucial for their survival on the market. Our contribution is to discover the behavior of Islamic banks in the face of information asymmetry, by exploiting the theoretical corpus in order to analyze their performance and the causal link existing with asymmetric information. To verify this, the need to use evaluation methods and econometric modeling, via the Excel and Stata computer tool, is necessary to highlight our results.   Keywords : Islamic bank; participative financial intermediation; asymmetric information. JEL classification : G20, G21, G32. Paper type: Theoretical article.Les banques islamiques suscitent de plus en plus l’intĂ©rĂŞt des professionnels et des acadĂ©miques, tout d’abord, par leur rĂ©sistance Ă  la crise de subprime et ensuite par leur intermĂ©diation financière participative qui affiche des rĂ©sultats importants. Celle-ci dĂ©coule de son principe fondateur, qui est le partage. L’intermĂ©diation financière spĂ©cifique des banques islamiques fait l’objet d’une asymĂ©trie d’information, dĂ©terminante pour leur survie sur le marchĂ©. Notre contribution est de dĂ©couvrir le comportement des banques islamiques face Ă  l’asymĂ©trie d’information, en exploitant le corpus thĂ©orique afin d’analyser leur performance et le lien de causalitĂ© existant avec l’asymĂ©trie d’information. Pour vĂ©rifier cela, la nĂ©cessitĂ© d’utilisation des mĂ©thodes d’évaluation et de modĂ©lisation Ă©conomĂ©trique, via l’outil informatique Excel et Stata, s'avère nĂ©cessaire pour mettre en valeur nos rĂ©sultats.   Mots-clĂ©s : Banque islamique ; intermĂ©diation financière participative ; asymĂ©trie d’information. Classification JEL : G20, G21, G32. Type de l’article : Article thĂ©orique. &nbsp

    L’intelligence Emotionelle Chez Les Apprenants De L’ecole Primaire : Cas Du Niveau 6ème Aep (Maroc)

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    At school, the learner is confronted with a group of classmates, peers, rules of life and an environment that generates potential emotions. School is the ideal place to develop the learner’s emotional intelligence. At Moroccan primary schools, learning the emotional intelligence is still underdeveloped, even if professionals and those in charge of education are increasingly aware of its importance. The child is unable to put his emotional life in standby. Without guidance and support, it will be difficult for him to face and handle certain emotions; for instance, those he can experience in the family circle and at school, such as fear before hardships, failure and ridicule. The same applies for timidity before the adult and the group, lack of confidence and, on the contrary, impulsiveness, extroversion, egocentricity, intolerance, aggression, etc. This work of research aims to explore the emotional repertoire of the learners of the 6th AEP (Morocco) in three areas: urban, peri-urban and rural. This study was conducted based on the analysis of the results of a survey consisting of the following five emotional skills: self-consciousness, management of the emotions, relationship with the others, parental relationship and school performance

    Vectorial Formalism of Polyphase Synchronous Machine With Permanents Magnets

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    Abstract- This paper presents a mathematical model that transforms the real machine to fictitious machines and our goal is to simulate these and see the behavior of these machines in load. The polyphase machines are developed mainly in the field of variable speed drives of high power because increasing the number of phases on the one hand allows to reduce the dimensions of the components in power modulators energy and secondly to improve the operating safety. By a vector approach (vector space), it is possible to find a set of single-phase machine and / or two-phase fictitious equivalent to polyphase synchronous machine. These fictitious machines are coupled electrically and mechanically but decoupled magnetically. This approach leads to introduce the concept of the equivalent machine (multimachine multiconverter system MMS) which aims to analyze systems composed of multiple machines (or multiple converters) in electric drives. A first classification multimachine multiconverter system follows naturally from MMS formalism. We present an example of a pentaphase (polyphase) synchronous machine for a simulation and study the behavior of the machine load. Keywords: Polyphase machines, multimachine concept, vector space, eigenvectors, eigenvalues, pentaphase machine

    The place of the modified palmer technique for articular calcaneal fractures

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    Surgical treatment of displaced articular fractures of the calcaneus is currently recommended by most authors. Different surgical procedures are described in literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional and anatomic results of articular fractures of the calcaneus surgically treated with the modified Palmer method and precise the place, the conditions, and the advantages of this technique for articular fractures of the calcaneus. This is a retrospective study assessing the outcomes of surgical treatment of articular calcaneal fractures surgically treated using the modified Palmer technique. Twenty-two patients underwent this surgery for 6 years. All patients have diabetes and/or smoking history, and physical examination revealed a severe swelling within the hindfoot. Sanders classification Type II was found in 6 cases, whereas 18 cases fell below Type III. The mean preoperative Bohler angle was about 2.7°. An extended lateral approach was performed, and the void caused by elevating the intra-articular surface was filled by an iliac crest graft firmly impacted in all cases. Additional limited fixation was performed in 71 of patients. On follow-up, the functional and anatomic results were analyzed, respectively, by Kitaoka and Babin's quotations, and the radiological assessment was based on Bohler angle. No cutaneous or infectious complications were observed after surgery. The mean postoperative Bohler angle was 21.9°, and it was 19.8° at the last follow-up with a significant difference. At follow-up, the mean functional Kitaoka score was 75; it was considered as excellent in four cases, good in ten, fair in eight, and poor in two patients. The modified Palmer technique is a simple surgical procedure to treat intra-articular calcaneal fractures. It provides encouraging results. This method is recommended in the case of Sander's II and III calcaneal fracture for patients with a high risk of cutaneous complications to avoid infection and cutaneous complications

    Vectorial Formalism of Polyphase Synchronous Machine with Permanents Magnets

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    - This paper presents a mathematical model that transforms the real machine to fictitious machines and our goal is to simulate these and see the behavior of these machines in load. The polyphase machines are developed mainly in the field of variable speed drives of high power because increasing the number of phases on the one hand allows to reduce the dimensions of the components in power modulators energy and secondly to improve the operating safety. By a vector approach (vector space), it is possible to find a set of single-phase machine and / or two-phase fictitious equivalent to polyphase synchronous machine. These fictitious machines are coupled electrically and mechanically but decoupled magnetically. This approach leads to introduce the concept of the equivalent machine (multimachine multiconverter system MMS) which aims to analyze systems composed of multiple machines (or multiple converters) in electric drives. A first classification multimachine multiconverter system follows naturally from MMS formalism. We present an example of a pentaphase (polyphase) synchronous machine for a simulation and study the behavior of the machine load

    The evolving SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Africa: Insights from rapidly expanding genomic surveillance

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    INTRODUCTION Investment in Africa over the past year with regard to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequencing has led to a massive increase in the number of sequences, which, to date, exceeds 100,000 sequences generated to track the pandemic on the continent. These sequences have profoundly affected how public health officials in Africa have navigated the COVID-19 pandemic. RATIONALE We demonstrate how the first 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from Africa have helped monitor the epidemic on the continent, how genomic surveillance expanded over the course of the pandemic, and how we adapted our sequencing methods to deal with an evolving virus. Finally, we also examine how viral lineages have spread across the continent in a phylogeographic framework to gain insights into the underlying temporal and spatial transmission dynamics for several variants of concern (VOCs). RESULTS Our results indicate that the number of countries in Africa that can sequence the virus within their own borders is growing and that this is coupled with a shorter turnaround time from the time of sampling to sequence submission. Ongoing evolution necessitated the continual updating of primer sets, and, as a result, eight primer sets were designed in tandem with viral evolution and used to ensure effective sequencing of the virus. The pandemic unfolded through multiple waves of infection that were each driven by distinct genetic lineages, with B.1-like ancestral strains associated with the first pandemic wave of infections in 2020. Successive waves on the continent were fueled by different VOCs, with Alpha and Beta cocirculating in distinct spatial patterns during the second wave and Delta and Omicron affecting the whole continent during the third and fourth waves, respectively. Phylogeographic reconstruction points toward distinct differences in viral importation and exportation patterns associated with the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants and subvariants, when considering both Africa versus the rest of the world and viral dissemination within the continent. Our epidemiological and phylogenetic inferences therefore underscore the heterogeneous nature of the pandemic on the continent and highlight key insights and challenges, for instance, recognizing the limitations of low testing proportions. We also highlight the early warning capacity that genomic surveillance in Africa has had for the rest of the world with the detection of new lineages and variants, the most recent being the characterization of various Omicron subvariants. CONCLUSION Sustained investment for diagnostics and genomic surveillance in Africa is needed as the virus continues to evolve. This is important not only to help combat SARS-CoV-2 on the continent but also because it can be used as a platform to help address the many emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats in Africa. In particular, capacity building for local sequencing within countries or within the continent should be prioritized because this is generally associated with shorter turnaround times, providing the most benefit to local public health authorities tasked with pandemic response and mitigation and allowing for the fastest reaction to localized outbreaks. These investments are crucial for pandemic preparedness and response and will serve the health of the continent well into the 21st century

    Global, regional, and national burden of disorders affecting the nervous system, 1990–2021: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021

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    BackgroundDisorders affecting the nervous system are diverse and include neurodevelopmental disorders, late-life neurodegeneration, and newly emergent conditions, such as cognitive impairment following COVID-19. Previous publications from the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor Study estimated the burden of 15 neurological conditions in 2015 and 2016, but these analyses did not include neurodevelopmental disorders, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11, or a subset of cases of congenital, neonatal, and infectious conditions that cause neurological damage. Here, we estimate nervous system health loss caused by 37 unique conditions and their associated risk factors globally, regionally, and nationally from 1990 to 2021.MethodsWe estimated mortality, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs), by age and sex in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2021. We included morbidity and deaths due to neurological conditions, for which health loss is directly due to damage to the CNS or peripheral nervous system. We also isolated neurological health loss from conditions for which nervous system morbidity is a consequence, but not the primary feature, including a subset of congenital conditions (ie, chromosomal anomalies and congenital birth defects), neonatal conditions (ie, jaundice, preterm birth, and sepsis), infectious diseases (ie, COVID-19, cystic echinococcosis, malaria, syphilis, and Zika virus disease), and diabetic neuropathy. By conducting a sequela-level analysis of the health outcomes for these conditions, only cases where nervous system damage occurred were included, and YLDs were recalculated to isolate the non-fatal burden directly attributable to nervous system health loss. A comorbidity correction was used to calculate total prevalence of all conditions that affect the nervous system combined.FindingsGlobally, the 37 conditions affecting the nervous system were collectively ranked as the leading group cause of DALYs in 2021 (443 million, 95% UI 378–521), affecting 3·40 billion (3·20–3·62) individuals (43·1%, 40·5–45·9 of the global population); global DALY counts attributed to these conditions increased by 18·2% (8·7–26·7) between 1990 and 2021. Age-standardised rates of deaths per 100 000 people attributed to these conditions decreased from 1990 to 2021 by 33·6% (27·6–38·8), and age-standardised rates of DALYs attributed to these conditions decreased by 27·0% (21·5–32·4). Age-standardised prevalence was almost stable, with a change of 1·5% (0·7–2·4). The ten conditions with the highest age-standardised DALYs in 2021 were stroke, neonatal encephalopathy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, diabetic neuropathy, meningitis, epilepsy, neurological complications due to preterm birth, autism spectrum disorder, and nervous system cancer.InterpretationAs the leading cause of overall disease burden in the world, with increasing global DALY counts, effective prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation strategies for disorders affecting the nervous system are needed