1,344 research outputs found

    Novel growth mechanism of epitaxial graphene on metals

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    Regimes of Precursor-Mediated Epitaxial Growth

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    A discussion of epitaxial growth is presented for those situations (OMVPE, CBE, ALE, MOMBE, GSMBE, etc.) when the kinetics of surface processes associated with molecular precursors may be rate limiting. Emphasis is placed on the identification of various {\it characteristic length scales} associated with the surface processes. Study of the relative magnitudes of these lengths permits one to identify regimes of qualitatively different growth kinetics as a function of temperature and deposition flux. The approach is illustrated with a simple model which takes account of deposition, diffusion, desorption, dissociation, and step incorporation of a single precursor species, as well as the usual processes of atomic diffusion and step incorporation. Experimental implications are discussed in some detail.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure

    Strong Electron Confinement By Stacking-fault Induced Fractional Steps on Ag(111) Surfaces

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    The electron reflection amplitude RR at stacking-fault (SF) induced fractional steps is determined for Ag(111) surface states using a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope. Unexpectedly, RR remains as high as 0.6∼0.80.6 \sim 0.8 as energy increases from 0 to 0.5 eV, which is in clear contrast to its rapidly decreasing behavior for monatomic (MA) steps [L. B{\"u}rgi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{81}, 5370 (1998)]. Tight-binding calculations based on {\em ab-initio} derived band structures confirm the experimental finding. Furthermore, the phase shifts at descending SF steps are found to be systematically larger than counterparts for ascending steps by ≈0.4π\approx 0.4 \pi. These results indicate that the subsurface SF plane significantly contributes to the reflection of surface states

    Triangular Mott-Hubbard Insulator Phases of Sn/Si(111) and Sn/Ge(111) Surfaces

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    The ground state of Sn/Si(111) and Sn/Ge(111) surface α\alpha-phases is reexamined theoretically, based on ab−initioab-initio calculations where correlations are approximately included through the orbital dependence of the Coulomb interaction (in the local density + Hubbard U approximation). The effect of correlations is to destabilize the vertical buckling in Sn/Ge(111) and to make the surface magnetic, with a metal-insulator transition for both systems. This signals the onset of a stable narrow gap Mott-Hubbard insulating state, in agreement with very recent experiments. Antiferromagnetic exchange is proposed to be responsible for the observed Γ\Gamma-point photoemission intensity, as well asfor the partial metallization observed above above 60 K in Sn/Si(111). Extrinsic metallization of Sn/Si(111) by, e.g.e.g. alkali doping, could lead to a novel 2D triangular superconducting state of this and similar surfaces.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations inspired by epitaxial graphene growth

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    Graphene, a flat monolayer of carbon atoms packed tightly into a two dimensional hexagonal lattice, has unusual electronic properties which have many promising nanoelectronic applications. Recent Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) experiments show that the step edge velocity of epitaxially grown 2D graphene islands on Ru(0001) varies with the fifth power of the supersaturation of carbon adatoms. This suggests that graphene islands grow by the addition of clusters of five atoms rather than by the usual mechanism of single adatom attachment. We have carried out Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations in order to further investigate the general scenario of epitaxial growth by the attachment of mobile clusters of atoms. We did not seek to directly replicate the Gr/Ru(0001) system but instead considered a model involving mobile tetramers of atoms on a square lattice. Our results show that the energy barrier for tetramer break up and the number of tetramers that must collide in order to nucleate an immobile island are the important parameters for determining whether, as in the Gr/Ru(0001) system, the adatom density at the onset of island nucleation is an increasing function of temperature. A relatively large energy barrier for adatom attachment to islands is required in order for our model to produce an equilibrium adatom density that is a large fraction of the nucleation density. A large energy barrier for tetramer attachment to islands is also needed for the island density to dramatically decrease with increasing temperature. We show that islands grow with a velocity that varies with the fourth power of the supersaturation of adatoms when tetramer attachment is the dominant process for island growth

    Why does wurtzite form in nanowires of III-V zinc-blende semiconductors?

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    We develop a nucleation-based model to explain the formation of the wurtzite (WZ) crystalline phase during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of free-standing nanowires of zinc-blende (ZB) semiconductors. We first show that, in nanowires, nucleation generally occurs at the outer edge of the solid/liquid interface (the triple phase line) rather than elsewhere at the solid/liquid interface. In the present case, this entails major differences between ZB and WZ nuclei. Depending on the pertinent interface energies, WZ nucleation is favored at high liquid supersaturation. This explains our systematic observation of ZB during the early stages of nanowire growth.Comment: 4 pages with 4 figures Submitted to Physical Review Letter

    Three reversible states controlled on a gold monoatomic contact by the electrochemical potential

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    Conductance of an Au mono atomic contact was investigated under the electrochemical potential control. The Au contact showed three different behaviors depending on the potential: 1 G0G_{0} (G0G_{0} = 2e2/h2e^{2}/h), 0.5 G0G_{0} and not-well defined values below 1 G0G_{0} were shown when the potential of the contact was kept at -0.6 V (double layer potential), -1.0 V (hydrogen evolution potential), and 0.8 V (oxide formation potential) versus Ag/AgCl in 0.1 M Na2_{2}SO4_{4} solution, respectively. These three reversible states and their respective conductances could be fully controlled by the electrochemical potential. These changes in the conductance values are discussed based on the proposed structure models of hydrogen adsorbed and oxygen incorporated on an Au mono atomic contact.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, to be appeared in Physical Review

    Disorder induced local density of states oscillations on narrow Ag(111) terraces

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    The local density of states of Ag(111) has been probed in detail on disordered terraces of varying width by dI/dV-mapping with a scanning tunneling microscope at low temperatures. Apparent shifts of the bottom of the surface-state band edge from terrace induced confinement are observed. Disordered terraces show interesting contrast reversals in the dI/dV maps as a function of tip-sample voltage polarity with details that depend on the average width of the terrace and the particular edge profile. In contrast to perfect terraces with straight edges, standing wave patterns are observed parallel to the step edges, i.e. in the non-confined direction. Scattering calculations based on the Ag(111) surface states reproduce these spatial oscillations and all the qualitative features of the standing wave patterns, including the polarity-dependent contrast reversals.Comment: 19 pages, 12 figure
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