2,665 research outputs found

    Two-point velocity average of turbulence: statistics and their implications

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    For turbulence, although the two-point velocity difference u(x+r)-u(x) at each scale r has been studied in detail, the velocity average [u(x+r)+u(x)]/2 has not thus far. Theoretically or experimentally, we find interesting features of the velocity average. It satisfies an exact scale-by-scale energy budget equation. The flatness factor varies with the scale r in a universal manner. These features are not consistent with the existing assumption that the velocity average is independent of r and represents energy-containing large-scale motions alone. We accordingly propose that it represents motions over scales >= r as long as the velocity difference represents motions at the scale r.Comment: 8 pages, accepted by Physics of Fluids (see http://pof.aip.org/

    Entropy and Area in Loop Quantum Gravity

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    Black hole thermodynamics suggests that the maximum entropy that can be contained in a region of space is proportional to the area enclosing it rather than its volume. I argue that this follows naturally from loop quantum gravity and a result of Kolmogorov and Bardzin' on the the realizability of networks in three dimensions. This represents an alternative to other approaches in which some sort of correlation between field configurations helps limit the degrees of freedom within a region. It also provides an approach to thinking about black hole entropy in terms of states inside rather than on its surface. Intuitively, a spin network complicated enough to imbue a region with volume only lets that volume grow as quickly as the area bounding it.Comment: 7 pages, this essay received an Honourable Mention in the Gravity Research Foundation Essay Competition 2005; reformatted for IJMP (accepted for publication) with minor typographical corrections and some extended discussio

    Relation between shear parameter and Reynolds number in statistically stationary turbulent shear flows

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    Studies of the relation between the shear parameter S^* and the Reynolds number Re are presented for a nearly homogeneous and statistically stationary turbulent shear flow. The parametric investigations are in line with a generalized perspective on the return to local isotropy in shear flows that was outlined recently [Schumacher, Sreenivasan and Yeung, Phys. Fluids, vol.15, 84 (2003)]. Therefore, two parameters, the constant shear rate S and the level of initial turbulent fluctuations as prescribed by an energy injection rate epsilon_{in}, are varied systematically. The investigations suggest that the shear parameter levels off for larger Reynolds numbers which is supported by dimensional arguments. It is found that the skewness of the transverse derivative shows a different decay behavior with respect to Reynolds number when the sequence of simulation runs follows different pathways across the two-parameter plane. The study can shed new light on different interpretations of the decay of odd order moments in high-Reynolds number experiments.Comment: 9 pages, 9 Postscript figure

    Shear Effects in Non-Homogeneous Turbulence

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    Motivated by recent experimental and numerical results, a simple unifying picture of intermittency in turbulent shear flows is suggested. Integral Structure Functions (ISF), taking into account explicitly the shear intensity, are introduced on phenomenological grounds. ISF can exhibit a universal scaling behavior, independent of the shear intensity. This picture is in satisfactory agreement with both experimental and numerical data. Possible extension to convective turbulence and implication on closure conditions for Large-Eddy Simulation of non-homogeneous flows are briefly discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    The Kelvin-wave cascade in the vortex filament model

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    The energy transfer mechanism in zero temperature superfluid turbulence of helium-4 is still a widely debated topic. Currently, the main hypothesis is that weakly nonlinear interacting Kelvin waves transfer energy to sufficiently small scales such that energy is dissipated as heat via phonon excitations. Theoretically, there are at least two proposed theories for Kelvin-wave interactions. We perform the most comprehensive numerical simulation of weakly nonlinear interacting Kelvin-waves to date and show, using a specially designed numerical algorithm incorporating the full Biot-Savart equation, that our results are consistent with nonlocal six-wave Kelvin wave interactions as proposed by L'vov and Nazarenko.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

    Scaling Relations of Compressible MHD Turbulence

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    We study scaling relations of compressible strongly magnetized turbulence. We find a good correspondence of our results with the Fleck (1996) model of compressible hydrodynamic turbulence. In particular, we find that the density-weighted velocity, i.e. u‚Č°ŌĀ1/3vu \equiv \rho^{1/3} v, proposed in Kritsuk et al. (2007) obeys the Kolmogorov scaling, i.e. Eu(k)‚ąľk‚ąí5/3E_{u}(k)\sim k^{-5/3} for the high Mach number turbulence. Similarly, we find that the exponents of the third order structure functions for uu stay equal to unity for the all the Mach numbers studied. The scaling of higher order correlations obeys the She-Leveque (1994) scalings corresponding to the two-dimensional dissipative structures, and this result does not change with the Mach number either. In contrast to vv which exhibits different scaling parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetic field, the scaling of uu is similar in both directions. In addition, we find that the peaks of density create a hierarchy in which both physical and column densities decrease with the scale in accordance to the Fleck (1996) predictions. This hierarchy can be related ubiquitous small ionized and neutral structures (SINS) in the interstellar gas. We believe that studies of statistics of the column density peaks can provide both consistency check for the turbulence velocity studies and insight into supersonic turbulence, when the velocity information is not available.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    Self-organization in turbulence as a route to order in plasma and fluids

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    Transitions from turbulence to order are studied experimentally in thin fluid layers and magnetically confined toroidal plasma. It is shown that turbulence self-organizes through the mechanism of spectral condensation. The spectral redistribution of the turbulent energy leads to the reduction in the turbulence level, generation of coherent flow, reduction in the particle diffusion and increase in the system's energy. The higher order state is sustained via the nonlocal spectral coupling of the linearly unstable spectral range to the large-scale mean flow. The similarity of self-organization in two-dimensional fluids and low-to-high confinement transitions in plasma suggests the universality of the mechanism.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Inertial Range Scaling, Karman-Howarth Theorem and Intermittency for Forced and Decaying Lagrangian Averaged MHD in 2D

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    We present an extension of the Karman-Howarth theorem to the Lagrangian averaged magnetohydrodynamic (LAMHD-alpha) equations. The scaling laws resulting as a corollary of this theorem are studied in numerical simulations, as well as the scaling of the longitudinal structure function exponents indicative of intermittency. Numerical simulations for a magnetic Prandtl number equal to unity are presented both for freely decaying and for forced two dimensional MHD turbulence, solving directly the MHD equations, and employing the LAMHD-alpha equations at 1/2 and 1/4 resolution. Linear scaling of the third-order structure function with length is observed. The LAMHD-alpha equations also capture the anomalous scaling of the longitudinal structure function exponents up to order 8.Comment: 34 pages, 7 figures author institution addresses added magnetic Prandtl number stated clearl
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