5,296 research outputs found

    Destination images of non-visitors

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    This article provides much needed understanding of destination images held by non-visitors. Recognizing the characteristics of non-visitor images and their formation is important in order to understand images more widely. This qualitative study assesses images of London. The views of three hundred people in the Czech Republic who have never visited London were obtained via an innovative open-ended research instrument. The study showed that non-visitors imagine destinations through comparisons with their own experiences of places. Findings indicate that images can be very persistent and that the first images formed of a destination endure over time. Although the research is based on people with no direct experience of London, the research highlights that a range of secondary ‘experiences’ influence image formation

    Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu

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    Mr. Stanford's "Savonarola"

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    Using a Design Science Approach to Create and Evaluate a Social Media Crime Reporting Tool in a Developing Country: Case Jamaica

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    Latin America and Caribbean countries account for a considerable percentage of the homicide rate globally. The level of crime in this region has had a negative effect on growth and development. We posit that the use of social media as a crime reporting tool could have a positive impact in these economies. Therefore the purpose of this research is to use design science to create a social media crime reporting tool to be implemented in Jamaica. Over a period of eighteen months the research and development team engaged with members of the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) to assess design requirements for this artifact. We present the preliminary results from the first interaction of the design cycle, which suggest that privacy and security risks, protecting the identity of informants, verifying evidence submission and reconciling Jamaica’s legislation with the use of the artifact are major concerns for members of the JC

    Segregation of an intruder in a heated granular dense gas

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    A recent segregation criterion [V. Garz\'o, Phys. Rev. E \textbf{78}, 020301(R) (2008)] based on the thermal diffusion factor Λ\Lambda of an intruder in a heated granular gas described by the inelastic Enskog equation is revisited. The sign of Λ\Lambda provides a criterion for the transition between the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) and the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE). The present theory incorporates two extra ingredients not accounted for by the previous theoretical attempt. First, the theory is based upon the second Sonine approximation to the transport coefficients of the mass flux of intruder. Second, the dependence of the temperature ratio (intruder temperature over that of the host granular gas) on the solid volume fraction is taken into account in the first and second Sonine approximations. In order to check the accuracy of the Sonine approximation considered, the Enskog equation is also numerically solved by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to get the kinetic diffusion coefficient D0D_0. The comparison between theory and simulation shows that the second Sonine approximation to D0D_0 yields an improvement over the first Sonine approximation when the intruder is lighter than the gas particles in the range of large inelasticity. With respect to the form of the phase diagrams for the BNE/RBNE transition, the kinetic theory results for the factor Λ\Lambda indicate that while the form of these diagrams depends sensitively on the order of the Sonine approximation considered when gravity is absent, no significant differences between both Sonine solutions appear in the opposite limit (gravity dominates the thermal gradient). In the former case (no gravity), the first Sonine approximation overestimates both the RBNE region and the influence of dissipation on thermal diffusion segregation.Comment: 9 figures; to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Rapid intravenous rehydration of children with acute gastroenteritis and dehydration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends rapid intravenous rehydration, using fluid volumes of 70-100mls/kg over 3–6 h, with some of the initial volume given rapidly as initial fluid boluses to treat hypovolaemic shock for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration. The evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of rapid versus slower rehydration remains uncertain.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on 11th of May 2017 comparing different rates of intravenous fluid therapy in children with AGE and moderate or severe dehydration, using standard search terms. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Non-RCTs and non-English articles were excluded. The primary endpoint was mortality and secondary endpoints included adverse events (safety) and treatment efficacy.Main results: Of the 1390 studies initially identified, 18 were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 3 studies (n = 464) fulfilled a priori criteria for inclusion; most studied children with moderate dehydration and none were conducted in resource-poor settings. Volumes and rates of fluid replacement varied from 20 to 60 ml/kg given over 1-2 h (fast) versus 2-4 h (slow). There was substantial heterogeneity in methodology between the studies with only one adjudicated to be of high quality. There were no deaths in any study. Safety endpoints only identified oedema (n = 6) and dysnatraemia (n = 2). Pooled analysis showed no significant difference between the rapid and slow intravenous rehydration groups for the proportion of treatment failures (N = 468): pooled RR 1.30 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.93) and the readmission rates (N = 439): pooled RR 1.39 (95% CI: 0.68, 2.85).Conclusions: Despite wide implementation of WHO Plan C guideline for severe AGE, we found no clinical evaluation in resource-limited settings, and only limited evaluation of the rate and volume of rehydration in other parts of the world. Recent concerns over aggressive fluid expansion warrants further research to inform guidelines on rates of intravenous rehydration therapy for severe AG

    On Kalmbach measurability

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    summary:In this note we show that, for an arbitrary orthomodular lattice LL, when μ\mu is a faithful, finite-valued outer measure on LL, then the Kalmbach measurable elements of LL form a Boolean subalgebra of the centre of LL

    Thermal diffusion segregation in granular binary mixtures described by the Enskog equation

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    Diffusion induced by a thermal gradient in a granular binary mixture is analyzed in the context of the (inelastic) Enskog equation. Although the Enskog equation neglects velocity correlations among particles which are about to collide, it retains spatial correlations arising from volume exclusion effects and thus it is expected to apply to moderate densities. In the steady state with gradients only along a given direction, a segregation criterion is obtained from the thermal diffusion factor Λ\Lambda measuring the amount of segregation parallel to the thermal gradient. As expected, the sign of the factor Λ\Lambda provides a criterion for the transition between the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) and the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE) by varying the parameters of the mixture (masses, sizes, concentration, solid volume fraction, and coefficients of restitution). The form of the phase diagrams for the BNE/RBNE transition is illustrated in detail for several systems, with special emphasis on the significant role played by the inelasticity of collisions. In particular, an effect already found in dilute gases (segregation in a binary mixture of identical masses and sizes {\em but} different coefficients of restitution) is extended to dense systems. A comparison with recent computer simulation results shows a good qualitative agreement at the level of the thermal diffusion factor. The present analysis generalizes to arbitrary concentration previous theoretical results derived in the tracer limit case.Comment: 7 figures, 1 table. To appear in New J. Phys., special issue on "Granular Segregation

    A Conceptual Model of an Information Security Domain Knowledge Base

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    Information Security breaches and threats continue to grow worldwide. Securing information systems issues persist despite the development of several Information security standards. The low adoption rate of these security standards is one of the main contributing factors for this growing problem. As emerging economies seek to be a part of the digital economy it is prudent that they make information security a priority. The lack of effective Information Security Strategies in developing countries has resulted in these countries facing the problem of becoming targets for cyber criminals. In this research we present a Conceptual Model and a design of an Information Security Domain Knowledge Base (InfoSec DKB) that can assist in developing and managing information security strategies. This design is based on a combination of decision making, security and auditing frameworks, namely concepts of the Value Focused Thinking (VFT) approach used in decision making, the Guidelines for Management of IT security (ISO/IEC 27001), Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies (COBIT)