560 research outputs found

    Quantum cosmology and late-time singularities

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    The development of dark energy models has stimulated interest to cosmological singularities, which differ from the traditional Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. We review a broad class of phenomena connected with soft cosmological singularities in classical and quantum cosmology. We discuss the classification of singularities from the geometrical point of view and from the point of view of the behaviour of finite size objects, crossing such singularities. We discuss in some detail quantum and classical cosmology of models based on perfect fluids (anti-Chaplygin gas and anti-Chaplygin gas plus dust), of models based on the Born-Infeld-type fields and of the model of a scalar field with a potential inversely proportional to the field itself. We dwell also on the phenomenon of the phantom divide line crossing in the scalar field models with cusped potentials. Then we discuss the Friedmann equations modified by quantum corrections to the effective action of the models under considerations and the influence of such modification on the nature and the existence of soft singularities. We review also quantum cosmology of models, where the initial quantum state of the universe is presented by the density matrix (mixed state). Finally, we discuss the exotic singularities arising in the brane-world cosmological models.Comment: final version, published in Classical and Quantum Gravity as a topical revie

    The problem of singularities and chaos in cosmology

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    We consider different aspects of the problem of cosmological singularity such as the BKL oscillatory approach to the singularity, the new features of the cosmological dynamics in the neighbourhood of the singularity in multidimensional and superstring cosmological models and their connections with such a modern branch of mathematics as infinite-dimensional Lie algebras. The chaoticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity is also discussed. The Conclusion contains some thoughts about the past and the future of the Universe in the light of the oscillatory approach to the Big Bang and the Big Crunch cosmological singularities.Comment: 17 page

    Relativistic hodograph equation for a two-dimensional stationary isentropic hydrodynamical motion

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    We derive a relativistic hodograph equation for a two-dimensional stationary isentropic hydrodynamical motion. For the case of stiff matter, when the velocity of sound coincides with the light speed, the singularity in this equation disappears and the solutions become regular in all hodograph plane.Comment: 5 page

    Chameleon Cosmology Model Describing the Phantom Divide Line Crossing

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    An exact solution describing the evolution of the type Bang-to-Rip with the phantom divide line crossing is constructed in the Chameleon cosmology model, based on two independent functions of the scalar field.Comment: 9 page

    Cosmological Landscape and Euclidean Quantum Gravity

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    Quantum creation of the universe is described by the {\em density matrix} defined by the Euclidean path integral. This yields an ensemble of universes -- a cosmological landscape -- in a mixed quasi-thermal state which is shown to be dynamically more preferable than the pure quantum state of the Hartle-Hawking type. The latter is suppressed by the infinitely large positive action of its instanton, generated by the conformal anomaly of quantum matter. The Hartle-Hawking instantons can be regarded as posing initial conditions for Starobinsky solutions of the anomaly driven deSitter expansion, which are thus dynamically eliminated by infrared effects of quantum gravity. The resulting landscape of hot universes treated within the cosmological bootstrap (the self-consistent back reaction of quantum matter) turns out to be limited to a bounded range of the cosmological constant, which rules out a well-known infrared catastrophe of the vanishing cosmological constant and suggests an ultimate solution to the problem of unboundedness of the cosmological action in Euclidean quantum gravity.Comment: 6 pages, to be published in the Special issue of J. Phys. A dedicated to the Quantum Theories and Renormalization Group in Gravity and Cosmology (IRGAC 2006, Barcelona, Spain, 11-15 July 2006

    Selection rules for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in quantum cosmology

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    Selection of physically meaningful solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the wavefunction in quantum cosmology, can be attained by a reduction of the theory to the sector of true physical degrees of freedom and their canonical quantization. The resulting physical wavefunction unitarily evolving in the time variable introduced within this reduction can then be raised to the level of the cosmological wavefunction in superspace of 3-metrics. We apply this technique in several simple minisuperspace models and discuss both at classical and quantum level physical reduction in {\em extrinsic} time -- the time variable determined in terms of extrinsic curvature. Only this extrinsic time gauge can be consistently used in vicinity of turning points and bounces where the scale factor reaches extremum. Since the 3-metric scale factor is canonically dual to extrinsic time variable, the transition from the physical wavefunction to the wavefunction in superspace represents a kind of the generalized Fourier transform. This transformation selects square integrable solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which guarantee Hermiticity of canonical operators of the Dirac quantization scheme. Semiclassically this means that wavefunctions are represented by oscillating waves in classically allowed domains of superspace and exponentially fall off in classically forbidden (underbarrier) regions. This is explicitly demonstrated in flat FRW model with a scalar field having a constant negative potential and for the case of phantom scalar field with a positive potential. The FRW model of a scalar field with a vanishing potential does not lead to selection rules for solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, but this does not violate Hermiticity properties, because all these solutions are anyway of plane wave type and describe cosmological dynamics without turning points and bounces.Comment: final version, to appear in Physical Review

    Darkness without dark matter and energy -- generalized unimodular gravity

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    We suggest a Lorentz non-invariant generalization of the unimodular gravity theory, which is classically equivalent to general relativity with a locally inert (devoid of local degrees of freedom) perfect fluid having an equation of state with a constant parameter ww. For the range of ww near 1-1 this dark fluid can play the role of dark energy, while for w=0w=0 this dark dust admits spatial inhomogeneities and can be interpreted as dark matter. We discuss possible implications of this model in the cosmological initial conditions problem. In particular, this is the extension of known microcanonical density matrix predictions for the initial quantum state of the closed cosmology to the case of spatially open Universe, based on the imitation of the spatial curvature by the dark fluid density. We also briefly discuss quantization of this model necessarily involving the method of gauge systems with reducible constraints and the effect of this method on the treatment of recently suggested mechanism of vacuum energy sequestering.Comment: 11 pages, final version, to be published in Physics Letters
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