10,161 research outputs found

    Dynamical density functional theory: phase separation in a cavity and the influence of symmetry

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    Consider a fluid composed of two species of particles, where the interparticle pair potentials u11=u22‚Ȇu12u_{11} = u_{22} \neq u_{12}. On confining an equal number of particles from each species in a cavity, one finds that the average one body density profiles of each species are constrained to be exactly the same due to the symmetry, when both external cavity potentials are the same. For a binary fluid of Brownian particles interacting via repulsive Gaussian pair potentials that exhibits phase separation, we study the dynamics of the fluid one body density profiles on breaking the symmetry of the external potentials, using the dynamical density functional theory of Marconi and Tarazona [{\it J. Chem. Phys.}, {\bf 110}, 8032 (1999)]. On breaking the symmetry we see that the fluid one body density profiles can then show the phase separation that is present.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for the proceedings of the Liquid Matter conference 2005, to be publication in J. Phys.: Condens. Matte

    Dynamical density functional theory and its application to spinodal decomposition

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    We present an alternative derivation of the dynamical density functional theory for the one body density profile of a classical fluid developed by Marconi and Tarazona [J. Chem. Phys., 110, 8032 (1999)]. Our derivation elucidates further some of the physical assumptions inherent in the theory and shows that it is not restricted to fluids composed of particles interacting solely via pair potentials; rather it applies to general, multi-body interactions. The starting point for our derivation is the Smoluchowski equation and the theory is therefore one for Brownian particles and as such is applicable to colloidal fluids. In the second part of this paper we use the dynamical density functional theory to derive a theory for spinodal decomposition that is applicable at both early and intermediate times. For early stages of spinodal decomposition our non-linear theory is equivalent to the (generalised) linear Cahn-Hilliard theory, but for later times it incorporates coupling between different Fourier components of the density fluctuations (modes) and therefore goes beyond Cahn-Hilliard theory. We describe the results of calculations for a model (Yukawa) fluid which show that the coupling leads to the growth of a second maximum in the density fluctuations, at a wavenumber larger than that of the main peak.Comment: 23 pages, 3 figure

    Microscopic theory of solvent mediated long range forces: influence of wetting

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    We show that a general density functional approach for calculating the force between two big particles immersed in a solvent of smaller ones can describe systems that exhibit fluid-fluid phase separation: the theory captures effects of strong adsorption (wetting) and of critical fluctuations in the solvent. We illustrate the approach for the Gaussian core model, a simple model of a polymer mixture in solution and find extremely attractive, long ranged solvent mediated potentials between the big particles for state points lying close to the binodal, on the side where the solvent is poor in the species which is favoured by the big particles.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Europhysics Letter

    Mean-field dynamical density functional theory

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    We examine the out-of-equilibrium dynamical evolution of density profiles of ultrasoft particles under time-varying external confining potentials in three spatial dimensions. The theoretical formalism employed is the dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) of Marini Bettolo Marconi and Tarazona [J. Chem. Phys. {\bf 110}, 8032 (1999)], supplied by an equilibrium excess free energy functional that is essentially exact. We complement our theoretical analysis by carrying out extensive Brownian Dynamics simulations. We find excellent agreement between theory and simulations for the whole time evolution of density profiles, demonstrating thereby the validity of the DDFT when an accurate equilibrium free energy functional is employed.Comment: 8 pagers, 4 figure

    Modelling the evaporation of nanoparticle suspensions from heterogeneous surfaces

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    We present a Monte Carlo (MC) grid-based model for the drying of drops of a nanoparticle suspension upon a heterogeneous surface. The model consists of a generalised lattice-gas in which the interaction parameters in the Hamiltonian can be varied to model different properties of the materials involved. We show how to choose correctly the interactions, to minimise the effects of the underlying grid so that hemispherical droplets form. We also include the effects of surface roughness to examine the effects of contact-line pinning on the dynamics. When there is a `lid' above the system, which prevents evaporation, equilibrium drops form on the surface, which we use to determine the contact angle and how it varies as the parameters of the model are changed. This enables us to relate the interaction parameters to the materials used in applications. The model has also been applied to drying on heterogeneous surfaces, in particular to the case where the suspension is deposited on a surface consisting of a pair of hydrophilic conducting metal surfaces that are either side of a band of hydrophobic insulating polymer. This situation occurs when using inkjet printing to manufacture electrical connections between the metallic parts of the surface. The process is not always without problems, since the liquid can dewet from the hydrophobic part of the surface, breaking the bridge before the drying process is complete. The MC model reproduces the observed dewetting, allowing the parameters to be varied so that the conditions for the best connection can be established. We show that if the hydrophobic portion of the surface is located at a step below the height of the neighbouring metal, the chance of dewetting of the liquid during the drying process is significantly reduced.Comment: 14 pages, 14 figure

    User community development for the space transportation system/Skylab

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    The New User Function plan for identifying beneficial uses of space is described. Critical issues such as funding, manpower, and protection of user proprietary rights are discussed along with common barriers which impede the development of a user community. Studies for developing methodologies of identifying new users and uses of the space transportation system are included

    Phase behavior of a fluid with competing attractive and repulsive interactions

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    Fluids in which the interparticle potential has a hard core, is attractive at moderate separations, and repulsive at greater separations are known to exhibit novel phase behavior, including stable inhomogeneous phases. Here we report a joint simulation and theoretical study of such a fluid, focusing on the relationship between the liquid-vapor transition line and any new phases. The phase diagram is studied as a function of the amplitude of the attraction for a certain fixed amplitude of the long ranged repulsion. We find that the effect of the repulsion is to substitute the liquid-vapor critical point and a portion of the associated liquid-vapor transition line, by two first order transitions. One of these transitions separates the vapor from a fluid of spherical liquidlike clusters; the other separates the liquid from a fluid of spherical voids. At low temperature, the two transition lines intersect one another and a vapor-liquid transition line at a triple point. While most integral equation theories are unable to describe the new phase transitions, the Percus Yevick approximation does succeed in capturing the vapor-cluster transition, as well as aspects of the structure of the cluster fluid, in reasonable agreement with the simulation results.Comment: 15 pages, 20 figure
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