977 research outputs found

    The Earth’s Interior: A New Frontier and a New Challenge for Earth Scientists

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    In this era of space exploration, deep expeditions to the ocean bottom and far viewing telescopes, the Earth's interior has emerged as one of the most challenging frontier areas for scientific investigation. Exploration of the crust, by seismic and other means, is well underway but our view of the underlying mantle and core is fuzzy. Plate tectonic theory has revolutionized Earth Science but we still do not understand the driving mechanism or why global processes change with time. The origins of the magnetic field, volcanism, earthquakes, mineral resources and mountain building processes are related to processes in the deep interior. Planetary exploration has opened up the new science of comparative planetology and yet, the most fundamental questions regarding the origin, evolution and composition of the Earth are unresolved because of our ignorance of the characteristics of most of our planet, the interior. The time is now ripe to make an integrated study of the Earth as a Planet or, in space age jargon, to undertake a mission to Planet Earth. There are several recent developments which make this timely

    Neutrino parameters from matter effects in PeeP_{ee} at long baselines

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    We show that the earth matter effects in the νe→νe{\rm {\nu_e \to \nu_e}} survival probability can be used to cleanly determine the third leptonic mixing angle θ13\theta_{13} and the sign of the atmospheric neutrino mass squared difference, Δm312\Delta m^2_{31}, using a β\beta-beam as a νe\nu_e source.Comment: 4 pages, 4 eps figures; comments and references added, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Core-mantle boundary deformations and J2 variations resulting from the 2004 Sumatra earthquake

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    The deformation at the core-mantle boundary produced by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake is investigated by means of a semi-analytic theoretical model of global coseismic and postseismic deformation, predicting a millimetric coseismic perturbation over a large portion of the core-mantle boundary. Spectral features of such deformations are analysed and discussed. The time-dependent postseismic evolution of the elliptical part of the gravity field (J2) is also computed for different asthenosphere viscosity models. Our results show that, for asthenospheric viscosities smaller than 10^18 Pa s, the postseismic J2 variation in the next years is expected to leave a detectable signal in geodetic observations.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figures, 1 table. It will appear in Geophysical Journal Internationa

    Neutrino oscillation probabilities: Sensitivity to parameters

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    We study in detail the sensitivity of neutrino oscillation probabilities to the fundamental neutrino parameters and their possible determination through experiments. The first part of the paper is devoted to the broad theme of isolating regions in the neutrino (and anti-neutrino) energy and propagation length that are sensitive to the oscillation parameters. Such a study is relevant to neutrinos both from the Earth's atmosphere or from a neutrino factory. For completeness we discuss the sensitivity, however small, to the parameters involved in a three-generation framework, and to the Earth matter density profile. We then study processes relevant to atmospheric neutrinos which are sensitive to and allow precision measurements of the mixing angle theta_23 and mass-squared difference delta_32 apart from the mixing angle theta_13. Crucial to this analysis is charge identification; detectors having this capability can isolate these matter effects. In particular, we address the issue of using matter effects to determine whether the mixing angle theta_23 is maximal, and, if not, to explore how well its octant can be determined. When realistic detector resolutions are included, we find that deviations of about 15% (20%) from a maximal value of sin^2 theta_23=1/2 can be measured at 95% (99%) CL provided theta_13 is non-zero, sin^2 theta_13 >= 0.015, and the neutrino mass ordering is normal, with fairly large exposures of 1000 kton-years.Comment: 37 pages Latex file, 30 eps figure files; minor typos fixe

    Seismic radiation by magma injection: An anomalous seismic event near Tori Shima, Japan

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    The earthquake with a bodywave magnitude m_b=5.5, which occurred near Tori Shima, Japan, on June 13, 1984 (origin time: 0229:25.3 UT, 31.448°N, 140.036°E, depth of 10 km, m_b =5.5, M_S=5.5) is anomalous because it generated tsunamis which are disproportionately large for the magnitude of the earthquake. At Hachijo Island, 150 km from the epicenter, tsunamis were visually observed with peak-to-peak amplitude of 130 to 150 cm. Long-period seismic radiation is also anomalous. Love waves are almost absent, and Rayleigh waves are radiated with equal amplitude and phase in all directions. A simple double-couple model cannot explain these observations. With the assumption of no net volume change at the source, these data can be best explained with a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) with the principal tensional dipole in the vertical direction. The scalar moment of this dipole is 4×10^(24) dyn cm. Moment tensor inversions of long-period body waves and surface waves yield an almost identical solution. This CLVD source can be interpreted as horizontal fluid injection. The location of the event is in the Smith depression which is one of the nascent back arc basins just behind the Bonin arc. These basins are filled with thick sediments, and numerous young volcanoes are found near this site. Magmatic injection is most likely to occur in this tectonic environment. However, the time scale of the seismic event seems too short for magma injection to occur. A more likely mechanism involves water-magma interaction. The injection may be viewed as hydrofracturing driven by supercritical water heated by injected magma. The estimated volume of injected water is about 0.018 km^3 and that of basaltic magma is about 10% of this. This type of deformation is more efficient for tsunami generation than faulting with the same scalar moment

    Which solar neutrino data favour the LMA solution?

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    Assuming neutrino oscillations, global analyses of solar data find that the LOW solution is significantly disfavoured, leaving LMA as the best solution. But the preference for LMA rests on three weak hints: the spectrum of earth matter effects (Super-Kamiokande sees an overall day/night asymmetry only at 1 sigma), the Cl rate (but LMA and LOW predictions are both above the measured value), the Ga rate (newer data decrease towards the LOW predictions both in GNO and SAGE). Only new data will tell us if LMA is the true solution.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Probing neutrino oscillations jointly in long and very long baseline experiments

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    We examine the prospects of making a joint analysis of neutrino oscillation at two baselines with neutrino superbeams. Assuming narrow band superbeams and a 100 kt water Cerenkov calorimeter, we calculate the event rates and sensitivities to the matter effect, the signs of the neutrino mass differences, the CP phase and the mixing angle \theta_{13}. Taking into account all possible experimental errors under general consideration, we explored the optimum cases of narrow band beam to measure the matter effect and the CP violation effect at all baselines up to 3000 km. We then focus on two specific baselines, a long baseline of 300 km and a very long baseline of 2100 km, and analyze their joint capabilities. We found that the joint analysis can offer extra leverage to resolve some of the ambiguities that are associated with the measurement at a single baseline.Comment: 23 pages, 11 figure

    The effects of matter density uncertainties on neutrino oscillations in the Earth

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    We compare three different methods to evaluate uncertainties in the Earth's matter density profile, which are relevant to long baseline experiments, such as neutrino factories.Comment: 3 pages, 1 figure. Talk given at the NuFact'02 Workshop, London, 1-6 July, 200
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