4,232 research outputs found

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    Preface

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    Kidney transplantation and withdrawal rates among wait-listed first-generation immigrants in Italy

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    Background: Multiple barriers diminish access to kidney transplantation (KT) in immigrant compared to non-immigrant populations. It is unknown whether immigration status reduces the likelihood of KT after wait-listing despite universal healthcare coverage with uniform access to transplantation. Methods: We retrospectively collected data of all adult waiting list (WL) registrants in Italy (2010-20) followed for 5 years until death, KT in a foreign center, deceased-donor kidney transplant (DDKT), living-donor kidney transplant (LDKT) or permanent withdrawal from the WL. We calculated adjusted relative probability of DDKT, LDKT and permanent WL withdrawal in different immigrant categories using competing-risks multiple regression models. Results: Patients were European Union (EU)-born (n = 21 624), Eastern European-born (n = 606) and non-European-born (n = 1944). After controlling for age, sex, blood type, dialysis vintage, case-mix and sensitization status, non-European-born patients had lower LDKT rates compared to other immigrant categories: LDKT adjusted relative probability of non-European-born vs. Eastern European-born 0.51 (95% CI: 0.33-0.79; P = 0.002); of non-European-born vs. EU-Born: 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47-0.82; P = 0.001). Immigration status did not affect the rate of DDKT or permanent WL withdrawal. Conclusions: Among EU WL registrants, non-European immigration background is associated with reduced likelihood of LDKT but similar likelihood of DDKT and permanent WL withdrawal. Wherever not available, new national policies should enable coverage of travel and medical fees for living-donor surgery and follow-up for non-resident donors to improve uptake of LDKT in immigrant patients, and provide KT education that is culturally competent, individually tailored and easily understandable for patients and their potential living donors

    Monocyte to lymphocyte blood ratio in tuberculosis and HIV patients: Comparative analysis, preliminary data

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    Recent data confirmed the hypothesis suggested by historical studies that the ratio of peripheral blood monocytes to lymphocytes (M/L) is associated with the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. We retrospectively analyzed the electronic health records of tuberculosis and HIV-positive patients who had followed day-care programs at the AIDS Center of the University of Palermo, Italy. 261 patients were recruited and divided into 6 groups as follows: healthy control group (HCG: 47 pts), latent HIV negative infected TB group (LIG, 43 pts), active HIV negative tuberculosis (TAG: 61 pts), treated tuberculosis HIV negative (TTG: 44 pts), HIV drug-naive patients tested TST and QFT-IT-negative with negative chest x-Ray (HIVnG: 44 pts), and HIV-tuberculosis coinfection (HIVTB-G: 22 pts). For each group, absolute lymphocyte (L), monocyte (M) and M/L ratio by peripheral blood was calculated. The mean value of monocytes in the TAG group was significant, the highest (0.70\uc2\ub10.37 1x103/\uce\ubcl) in comparison to HGC (0.70>0.44, p-value <0.05), HIVnG (0.70>0.40, p-value <0.05) and HIVTB-G (0.70>0.45, p-value<0.05). Monocyte to lymphocyte blood RATIO showed a significant difference between groups (p-value <0.001). In particular, the mean score of M/L ratio was higher in the TAG group compared to the HGC (0.49>0.27, p-value<0.05), LIG (0.49>0.29, p-value<0.05), TTG (0.49>0.32) and HIVTB-G groups (0.49>0.27, p-value<0.05). Our data confirm a significant difference in monocyte to lymphocyte blood ratio in tuberculosis disease. These data may be useful for monitoring and revising implementation plans for the different phases of tuberculosis disease (latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection versus TB active disease). Regarding HIV samples, the small sample size is somewhat offset by the need, fully satisfied in our sample, to enlist specific patients such as co-infected HIV/TBC who voluntarily submit to clinical trials in our geographical area

    Comparative analysis of biochip mosaic-based indirect immunofluorescence with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosing myasthenia gravis

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    Background: The detection of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibodies is useful in myasthenia gravis (MG) diagnosis and management. BIOCHIP mosaic-based indirect immunofluorescence is a novel analytical method, which employs the simultaneous detection of anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies in a single miniature incubation field. In this study, we compare, for the first time, the BIOCHIP MG mosaic with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of MG. Methods: A total of 71 patients with MG diagnosis were included in the study. Anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies were measured separately by two different ELISA and simultaneously by BIOCHIP. The results were then compared. Results: The overall concordance between ELISA and BIOCHIP for anti-AChR reactivity was 74%. Cohen’s kappa was 0.51 (95% CI 0.32–0.71), which corresponds to 90% of the maximum possible kappa (0.57), given the observed marginal frequencies. The overall concordance for anti-MuSK reactivity was 84%. Cohen’s kappa was 0.11 (95% CI 0.00–0.36), which corresponds to 41% of the maximum possible kappa (0.27). Conclusion: The overall concordance among assays is not optimal

    A detailed map of Higgs boson interactions by the ATLAS experiment ten years after the discovery

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    The standard model of particle physics1-4 describes the known fundamental particles and forces that make up our Universe, with the exception of gravity. One of the central features of the standard model is a field that permeates all of space and interacts with fundamental particles5-9. The quantum excitation of this field, known as the Higgs field, manifests itself as the Higgs boson, the only fundamental particle with no spin. In 2012, a particle with properties consistent with the Higgs boson of the standard model was observed by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN10,11. Since then, more than 30 times as many Higgs bosons have been recorded by the ATLAS experiment, enabling much more precise measurements and new tests of the theory. Here, on the basis of this larger dataset, we combine an unprecedented number of production and decay processes of the Higgs boson to scrutinize its interactions with elementary particles. Interactions with gluons, photons, and W and Z bosons-the carriers of the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces-are studied in detail. Interactions with three third-generation matter particles (bottom (b) and top (t) quarks, and tau leptons (Ď„)) are well measured and indications of interactions with a second-generation particle (muons, ÎĽ) are emerging. These tests reveal that the Higgs boson discovered ten years ago is remarkably consistent with the predictions of the theory and provide stringent constraints on many models of new phenomena beyond the standard model

    Optimization of RPCs read-out panel with electromagnetic simulation

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    With the upgrade of the RPCs [1]-[2] and the increase of its performances, the study and the optimization of the read-out panel is necessary in order to maintain the signal integrity and to reduce the intrinsic crosstalk. Through Electromagnetic Simulation, performed with CST Studio Suite, new panels design are tested and their crosstalk property are studied. The behavior of different type of panel is shown, in particular a panel with the decoupling strip connected through their characteristic impedance to the ground plane is simulated
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