12,485 research outputs found

### A semi-empirical stability criterion for real planetary systems

We test a crossing orbit stability criterion for eccentric planetary systems,
based on Wisdom's criterion of first order mean motion resonance overlap
(Wisdom, 1980).
We show that this criterion fits the stability regions in real exoplanet
systems quite well. In addition, we show that elliptical orbits can remain
stable even for regions where the apocenter distance of the inner orbit is
larger than the pericenter distance of the outer orbit, as long as the initial
orbits are aligned.
The analytical expressions provided here can be used to put rapid constraints
on the stability zones of multi-planetary systems. As a byproduct of this
research, we further show that the amplitude variations of the eccentricity can
be used as a fast-computing stability indicator.Comment: 11 pages, 11 figures. MNRAS accepte

### HD60532, a planetary system in a 3:1 mean motion resonance

In a recent paper it was reported a planetary system around the star HD60532,
composed by two giant planets in a possible 3:1 mean motion resonance, that
should be confirmed within the next decade. Here we show that the analysis of
the global dynamics of the system allows to confirm this resonance. The present
best fit to data already corresponds to this resonant configuration and the
system is stable for at least 5Gry. The 3:1 resonance is so robust that
stability is still possible for a wide variety of orbital parameters around the
best fit solution and also if the inclination of the system orbital plane with
respect to the plane of the sky is as small as 15 deg. Moreover, if the
inclination is taken as a free parameter in the adjustment to the observations,
we find an inclination ~ 20 deg, which corresponds to M_b =3.1 M_Jup and M_c =
7.4 M_Jup for the planetary companions.Comment: 4 Pages, 4 Figures, accepted by A&

### Stellar wobble caused by a nearby binary system: eccentric and inclined orbits

Most extrasolar planets currently known were discovered by means of an
indirect method that measures the stellar wobble caused by the planet. We
previously studied a triple system composed of a star and a nearby binary on
circular coplanar orbits. We showed that although the effect of the binary on
the star can be differentiated from the stellar wobble caused by a planet,
because of observational limitations the two effects may often remain
indistinguishable. Here, we develop a model that applies to eccentric and
inclined orbits. We show that the binary's effect is more likely to be mistaken
by planet(s) in the case of coplanar motion observed equator-on. Moreover, when
the orbits are eccentric, the magnitude of the binary's effect may be larger
than in the circular case. Additionally, an eccentric binary can mimic two
planets with orbital periods in the ratio 2/1. However, when the star's orbit
around the binary's center of mass has a high eccentricity and a reasonably
well-constrained period, it should be easier to distinguish the binary's effect
from a planet.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figures, 2 table

### Spin-orbit resonances and rotation of coorbital bodies in quasi-circular orbits

The rotation of asymmetric bodies in eccentric Keplerian orbits can be
chaotic when there is some overlap of spin-orbit resonances. Here we show that
the rotation of two coorbital bodies (two planets orbiting a star or two
satellites of a planet) can also be chaotic even for quasi-circular orbits
around the central body. When dissipation is present, the rotation period of a
body on a nearly circular orbit is believed to always end synchronous with the
orbital period. Here we demonstrate that for coorbital bodies in quasi-circular
orbits, stable non-synchronous rotation is possible for a wide range of mass
ratios and body shapes. We further show that the rotation becomes chaotic when
the natural rotational libration frequency, due to the axial asymmetry, is of
the same order of magnitude as the orbital libration frequency

### Resonance breaking due to dissipation in planar planetary systems

We study the evolution of two planets around a star, in mean-motion resonance
and undergoing tidal effect. We derive an integrable analytical model of
mean-motion resonances of any order which reproduce the main features of the
resonant dynamics. Using this simplified model, we obtain a criterion showing
that depending on the balance of the tidal dissipation in both planets, their
final period ratio may stay at the resonant value, increase above, or decrease
below the resonant value.
Applying this criterion to the two inner planets orbiting GJ163, we deduce
that the current period ratio (2.97) could be the outcome of dissipation in the
3:1 MMR provided that the innermost planet is gaseous (slow dissipation) while
the second one is rocky (faster dissipation). We perform N-body simulations
with tidal dissipation to confirm the results of our analytical model.
We also apply our criterion on GJ581b, c (5:2 MMR) and reproduce the current
period ratio (2.4) if the inner planet is gaseous and the outer is rocky (as
for GJ163).
Finally, we apply our model to the Kepler mission's statistics. We show that
the excess of planets pairs close to first order MMR but in external
circulation, i.e., with period ratios P_out/P_in > (p+1)/p for the resonance
(p+1):p, can be reproduced by tidal dissipation in the inner planet. There is
no need for any other dissipative mechanism, provided that these systems left
the resonance with non-negligible eccentricities.Comment: 14 pages, 9 figures, submitted for publicatio

### On the equilibrium rotation of Earth-like extra-solar planets

The equilibrium rotation of tidally evolved "Earth-like" extra-solar planets
is often assumed to be synchronous with their orbital mean motion. The same
assumption persisted for Mercury and Venus until radar observations revealed
their true spin rates. As many of these planets follow eccentric orbits and are
believed to host dense atmospheres, we expect the equilibrium rotation to
differ from the synchronous motion. Here we provide a general description of
the allowed final equilibrium rotation states of these planets, and apply this
to already discovered cases in which the mass is lower than twelve
Earth-masses. At low obliquity and moderate eccentricity, it is shown that
there are at most four distinct equilibrium possibilities, one of which can be
retrograde. Because most presently known "Earth-like" planets present eccentric
orbits, their equilibrium rotation is unlikely to be synchronous.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. accepted for publication in Astronomy and
Astrophysics. to be published in Astronomy and Astrophysic

### Tidal damping of the mutual inclination in hierachical systems

Hierarchical two-planet systems, in which the inner body's semi-major axis is
between 0.1 and 0.5 AU, usually present high eccentricity values, at least for
one of the orbits. As a result of the formation process, one may expect that
planetary systems with high eccentricities also have high mutual inclinations.
However, here we show that tidal effects combined with gravitational
interactions damp the initial mutual inclination to modest values in timescales
that are shorter than the age of the system. This effect is not a direct
consequence of tides on the orbits, but it results from a secular forcing of
the inner planet's flattening. We then conclude that these hierarchical
planetary systems are unlikely to present very high mutual inclinations, at
least as long as the orbits remain outside the Lidov-Kozai libration areas. The
present study can also be extended to systems of binary stars and to
planet-satellite systems.Comment: 16 pages, 13 figure

### Dynamical stability analysis of the HD202206 system and constraints to the planetary orbits

Long-term precise Doppler measurements with the CORALIE spectrograph revealed
the presence of two massive companions to the solar-type star HD202206.
Although the three-body fit of the system is unstable, it was shown that a 5:1
mean motion resonance exists close to the best fit, where the system is stable.
We present here an extensive dynamical study of the HD202206 system aiming at
constraining the inclinations of the two known companions, from which we derive
possible ranges of value for the companion masses.
We study the long term stability of the system in a small neighborhood of the
best fit using Laskar's frequency map analysis. We also introduce a numerical
method based on frequency analysis to determine the center of libration mode
inside a mean motion resonance.
We find that acceptable coplanar configurations are limited to inclinations
to the line of sight between 30 and 90 degrees. This limits the masses of both
companions to roughly twice the minimum. Non coplanar configurations are
possible for a wide range of mutual inclinations from 0 to 90 degrees, although
$\Delta\Omega = 0 [\pi]$ configurations seem to be favored. We also confirm the
5:1 mean motion resonance to be most likely. In the coplanar edge-on case, we
provide a very good stable solution in the resonance, whose $\chi^2$ does not
differ significantly from the best fit. Using our method to determine the
center of libration, we further refine this solution to obtain an orbit with a
very low amplitude of libration, as we expect dissipative effects to have
dampened the libration.Comment: 14 pages, 18 figure

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