382 research outputs found

    On the existence of a variational principle for deterministic cellular automaton models of highway traffic flow

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    It is shown that a variety of deterministic cellular automaton models of highway traffic flow obey a variational principle which states that, for a given car density, the average car flow is a non-decreasing function of time. This result is established for systems whose configurations exhibits local jams of a given structure. If local jams have a different structure, it is shown that either the variational principle may still apply to systems evolving according to some particular rules, or it could apply under a weaker form to systems whose asymptotic average car flow is a well-defined function of car density. To establish these results it has been necessary to characterize among all number-conserving cellular automaton rules which ones may reasonably be considered as acceptable traffic rules. Various notions such as free-moving phase, perfect and defective tiles, and local jam play an important role in the discussion. Many illustrative examples are given.Comment: 19 pages, 4 figure

    Car-oriented mean-field theory for traffic flow models

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    We present a new analytical description of the cellular automaton model for single-lane traffic. In contrast to previous approaches we do not use the occupation number of sites as dynamical variable but rather the distance between consecutive cars. Therefore certain longer-ranged correlations are taken into account and even a mean-field approach yields non-trivial results. In fact for the model with vmax=1v_{max}=1 the exact solution is reproduced. For vmax=2v_{max}=2 the fundamental diagram shows a good agreement with results from simulations.Comment: LaTex, 10 pages, 2 postscript figure

    Quantitative analysis of pedestrian counterflow in a cellular automaton model

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    Pedestrian dynamics exhibits various collective phenomena. Here we study bidirectional pedestrian flow in a floor field cellular automaton model. Under certain conditions, lane formation is observed. Although it has often been studied qualitatively, e.g., as a test for the realism of a model, there are almost no quantitative results, neither empirically nor theoretically. As basis for a quantitative analysis we introduce an order parameter which is adopted from the analysis of colloidal suspensions. This allows to determine a phase diagram for the system where four different states (free flow, disorder, lanes, gridlock) can be distinguished. Although the number of lanes formed is fluctuating, lanes are characterized by a typical density. It is found that the basic floor field model overestimates the tendency towards a gridlock compared to experimental bounds. Therefore an anticipation mechanism is introduced which reduces the jamming probability.Comment: 11 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Generalized Centrifugal Force Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

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    A spatially continuous force-based model for simulating pedestrian dynamics is introduced which includes an elliptical volume exclusion of pedestrians. We discuss the phenomena of oscillations and overlapping which occur for certain choices of the forces. The main intention of this work is the quantitative description of pedestrian movement in several geometries. Measurements of the fundamental diagram in narrow and wide corridors are performed. The results of the proposed model show good agreement with empirical data obtained in controlled experiments.Comment: 10 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication as a Regular Article in Physical Review E. This version contains minor change

    Cluster formation and anomalous fundamental diagram in an ant trail model

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    A recently proposed stochastic cellular automaton model ({\it J. Phys. A 35, L573 (2002)}), motivated by the motions of ants in a trail, is investigated in detail in this paper. The flux of ants in this model is sensitive to the probability of evaporation of pheromone, and the average speed of the ants varies non-monotonically with their density. This remarkable property is analyzed here using phenomenological and microscopic approximations thereby elucidating the nature of the spatio-temporal organization of the ants. We find that the observations can be understood by the formation of loose clusters, i.e. space regions of enhanced, but not maximal, density.Comment: 11 pages, REVTEX, with 11 embedded EPS file

    Disorder Effects in CA-Models for Traffic Flow

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    We investigate the effect of quenched disorder in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model of traffic flow. Spatial inhomogenities, i.e. lattice sites where the braking probability is enlarged, are considered as well as particle disorder, i.e. cars of a different maximum velocity. Both types of disorder lead to segregated states.Comment: 6 pages, 4 postscript figures, Proceedings of the conference "Traffic and Granular Flow '97", Duisburg, Germany, October 5-8, 199

    Effect of on- and off-ramps in cellular automata models for traffic flow

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    We present results on the modeling of on- and off-ramps in cellular automata for traffic flow, especially the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. We study two different types of on-ramps that cause qualitatively the same effects. In a certain density regime one observes plateau formation in the fundamental diagram. The plateau value depends on the input-rate of cars at the on-ramp. The on-ramp acts as a local perturbation that separates the system into two regimes: A regime of free flow and another one where only jammed states exist. This phase separation is the reason for the plateau formation and implies a behaviour analogous to that of stationary defects. This analogy allows to perform very fast simulations of complex traffic networks with a large number of on- and off-ramps because one can parametrise on-ramps in an exceedingly easy way.Comment: 11 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in Int. J. Mod. Phys.
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