1,808 research outputs found

    Planning effort as an effective risk management tool

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    In project management, high levels of risk are considered to be a significant obstacle for project success. This paper investigates whether improving the project plan can lead to improved success for high-risk projects. A quality of planning index was designed to explore how the presence of high risk affects the quality of planning and project success. The index includes managerial aspects such as costs, human resources, procurement and quality, as well as organizational support aspects based on organization maturity models. In a field study based on data collected from 202 project managers regarding their most recent projects, it was found that the levels of risk at the beginning of projects has no effect on their final success. Drilling down to find an explanation for this surprising phenomenon, we found that in the presence of high risk, project managers significantly improve their project plans. Hence, in high-risk projects, better project plans improve all four dimensions of project success: schedule overrun, cost overrun, technical performance and customer satisfaction. However, in low-risk projects, better project plans did not contribute to reducing schedule or cost overruns. In other words, while endless risk management tools are developed, we found that improving the project plan is a more effective managerial tool in dealing with high-risk projects. Finally, the paper presents the most common planning tools currently being used in high-risk projects

    When and where do you want to hide? Recommendation of location privacy preferences with local differential privacy

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    In recent years, it has become easy to obtain location information quite precisely. However, the acquisition of such information has risks such as individual identification and leakage of sensitive information, so it is necessary to protect the privacy of location information. For this purpose, people should know their location privacy preferences, that is, whether or not he/she can release location information at each place and time. However, it is not easy for each user to make such decisions and it is troublesome to set the privacy preference at each time. Therefore, we propose a method to recommend location privacy preferences for decision making. Comparing to existing method, our method can improve the accuracy of recommendation by using matrix factorization and preserve privacy strictly by local differential privacy, whereas the existing method does not achieve formal privacy guarantee. In addition, we found the best granularity of a location privacy preference, that is, how to express the information in location privacy protection. To evaluate and verify the utility of our method, we have integrated two existing datasets to create a rich information in term of user number. From the results of the evaluation using this dataset, we confirmed that our method can predict location privacy preferences accurately and that it provides a suitable method to define the location privacy preference

    Experiment for Testing Special Relativity Theory

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    An experiment aimed at testing special relativity via a comparison of the velocity of a non matter particle (annihilation photon) with the velocity of the matter particle (Compton electron) produced by the second annihilation photon from the decay Na-22(beta^+)Ne-22 is proposed.Comment: 7 pages, 1 figure, Report on the Conference of Nuclear Physics Division of Russian Academy of Science "Physics of Fundamental Interactions", ITEP, Moscow, November 26-30, 200

    Scale Invariance and Nonlinear Patterns of Human Activity

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    We investigate if known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for the complex features observed in recordings of human activity as measured from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. We demonstrate that the apparently random forearm motion possesses previously unrecognized dynamic patterns characterized by fractal and nonlinear dynamics. These patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level, and persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the circadian phase and to control the known extrinsic factors. We attribute these patterns to a novel intrinsic multi-scale dynamic regulation of human activity.Comment: 4 pages, three figure

    Spectrometric method to detect exoplanets as another test to verify the invariance of the velocity of light

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    Hypothetical influences of variability of light velocity due to the parameters of the source of radiation, for the results of spectral measurements of stars to search for exoplanets are considered. Accounting accelerations of stars relative to the barycenter of the star - a planet (the planets) was carried out. The dependence of the velocity of light from the barycentric radial velocity and barycentric radial acceleration component of the star should lead to a substantial increase (up to degree of magnitude) semi-major axes of orbits detected candidate to extrasolar planets. Consequently, the correct comparison of the results of spectral method with results of other well-known modern methods of detecting extrasolar planets can regard the results obtained in this paper as a reliable test for testing the invariance of the velocity of light.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure

    Local and macroscopic tunneling spectroscopy of Y(1-x)CaxBa2Cu3O(7-d) films: evidence for a doping dependent is or idxy component in the order parameter

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    Tunneling spectroscopy of epitaxial (110) Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3O7-d films reveals a doping dependent transition from pure d(x2-y2) to d(x2-y2)+is or d(x2-y2)+idxy order parameter. The subdominant (is or idxy) component manifests itself in a splitting of the zero bias conductance peak and the appearance of subgap structures. The splitting is seen in the overdoped samples, increases systematically with doping, and is found to be an inherent property of the overdoped films. It was observed in both local tunnel junctions, using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and in macroscopic planar junctions, for films prepared by either RF sputtering or laser ablation. The STM measurements exhibit fairly uniform splitting size in [110] oriented areas on the order of 10 nm2 but vary from area to area, indicating some doping inhomogeneity. U and V-shaped gaps were also observed, with good correspondence to the local faceting, a manifestation of the dominant d-wave order parameter

    Sleep habits and sleep disturbances in Dutch children: a population-based study

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    Sleep disorders can lead to significant morbidity. Information on sleep in healthy children is necessary to evaluate sleep disorders in clinical practice, but data from different societies cannot be simply generalized. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the prevalence of sleep disturbances in Dutch healthy children, (2) describe sleep habits and problems in this population, (3) collect Dutch norm data for future reference, and (4) compare sleep in children from different cultural backgrounds. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using the Children’s sleep habits questionnaire and the sleep self-report. One thousand five hundred seven proxy-reports and 262 self-reports were analyzed. Mean age was 8.5 years (95% confidence interval, 8.4–8.6), 52% were boys. Sleep problems in Dutch children were present in 25%, i.e., comparable to other populations. Sleep habits were age-related. Problem sleepers scored significantly higher on all scales. Correlations between parental and self-assessments were low to moderate. Dutch children had significantly more sleep disturbances than children from the USA and less than Chinese children. Cognitions and attitudes towards what is considered normal sleep seem to affect the appraisal of sleep, this probably accounts partly for cultural differences. For a better understanding of cultural influences on sleep, more information on these determinants and the establishment of cultural norms are mandatory

    Developmental effects on sleep–wake patterns in infants receiving a cow’s milk-based infant formula with an added prebiotic blend: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Background Few studies have evaluated nutritive effects of prebiotics on infant behavior state, physiology, or metabolic status. Methods In this double-blind randomized study, infants (n = 161) received cow’s milk-based infant formula (Control) or similar formula with an added prebiotic blend (polydextrose and galactooligosaccharides [PDX/GOS]) from 14–35 to 112 days of age. Infant wake behavior (crying/fussing, awake/content) and 24-h sleep–wake actograms were analyzed (Baseline, Days 70 and 112). Salivary cortisol was immunoassayed (Days 70 and 112). In a subset, exploratory stool 16S ribosomal RNA-sequencing was analyzed (Baseline, Day 112). Results One hundred and thirty-one infants completed the study. Average duration of crying/fussing episodes was similar at Baseline, significantly shorter for PDX/GOS vs. Control at Day 70, and the trajectory continued at Day 112. Latency to first and second nap was significantly longer for PDX/GOS vs. Control at Day 112. Cortisol awakening response was demonstrated at Days 70 and 112. Significant stool microbiome beta-diversity and individual taxa abundance differences were observed in the PDX/GOS group. Conclusions Results indicate faster consolidation of daytime waking state in infants receiving prebiotics and support home-based actigraphy to assess early sleep–wake patterns. A prebiotic effect on wake organization is consistent with influence on the gut–brain axis and warrants further investigation. Impact Few studies have evaluated nutritive effects of prebiotics on infant behavior state, cortisol awakening response, sleep–wake entrainment, and gut microbiome. Faster consolidation of daytime waking state was demonstrated in infants receiving a prebiotic blend in infant formula through ~4 months of age. Shorter episodes of crying were demonstrated at ~2 months of age (time point corresponding to age/developmental range associated with peak crying) in infants receiving formula with added prebiotics. Results support home-based actigraphy as a suitable method to assess early sleep–wake patterns. Prebiotic effect on wake organization is consistent with influence on the gut–brain axis and warrants further investigation
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