23,589 research outputs found

    Deriving the sampling errors of correlograms for general white noise

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    We derive the second-order sampling properties of certain autocovariance and autocorrelation estimators for sequences of independent and identically distributed samples. Specifically, the estimators we consider are the classic lag windowed correlogram, the correlogram with subtracted sample mean, and the fixed-length summation correlogram. For each correlogram we derive explicit formulas for the bias, covariance, mean square error and consistency for generalised higher-order white noise sequences. In particular, this class of sequences may have non-zero means, be complexed valued and also includes non-analytical noise signals. We find that these commonly used correlograms exhibit lag dependent covariance despite the fact that these processes are white and hence by definition do not depend on lag.Comment: Submitted to Biometrik

    Scanning-electron-microscope used in real-time study of friction and wear

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    Small friction and wear apparatus built directly into scanning-electron-microscope provides both dynamic observation and microscopic view of wear process. Friction and wear tests conducted using this system have indicated that considerable information can readily be gained

    Sampling errors of correlograms with and without sample mean removal for higher-order complex white noise with arbitrary mean

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    We derive the bias, variance, covariance, and mean square error of the standard lag windowed correlogram estimator both with and without sample mean removal for complex white noise with an arbitrary mean. We find that the arbitrary mean introduces lag dependent covariance between different lags of the correlogram estimates in spite of the lack of covariance in white noise for non-zeros lags. We provide a heuristic rule for when the sample mean should be, and when it should not be, removed if the true mean is not known. The sampling properties derived here are useful is assesing the general statistical performance of autocovariance and autocorrelation estimators in different parameter regimes. Alternatively, the sampling properties could be used as bounds on the detection of a weak signal in general white noise.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures, To be published in Journal of Time Series Analysi

    Ion plating seals microcracks or porous metal components

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    Description of ion plating process is given. Advantage of this process is that any plating metal or alloy can be selected, whereas, for conventional welding, material selection is limited by compatability

    Optimisation in ‘Self-modelling’ Complex Adaptive Systems

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    When a dynamical system with multiple point attractors is released from an arbitrary initial condition it will relax into a configuration that locally resolves the constraints or opposing forces between interdependent state variables. However, when there are many conflicting interdependencies between variables, finding a configuration that globally optimises these constraints by this method is unlikely, or may take many attempts. Here we show that a simple distributed mechanism can incrementally alter a dynamical system such that it finds lower energy configurations, more reliably and more quickly. Specifically, when Hebbian learning is applied to the connections of a simple dynamical system undergoing repeated relaxation, the system will develop an associative memory that amplifies a subset of its own attractor states. This modifies the dynamics of the system such that its ability to find configurations that minimise total system energy, and globally resolve conflicts between interdependent variables, is enhanced. Moreover, we show that the system is not merely ‘recalling’ low energy states that have been previously visited but ‘predicting’ their location by generalising over local attractor states that have already been visited. This ‘self-modelling’ framework, i.e. a system that augments its behaviour with an associative memory of its own attractors, helps us better-understand the conditions under which a simple locally-mediated mechanism of self-organisation can promote significantly enhanced global resolution of conflicts between the components of a complex adaptive system. We illustrate this process in random and modular network constraint problems equivalent to graph colouring and distributed task allocation problems

    Effect of strain hardening on friction behavior of iron lubricated with benzyl structures

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    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with iron, copper, and aluminum in contact with iron in various states of strain. The surfaces were examined in dry sliding and with various benzyl compounds applied as lubricants. Friction experiments were conducted with a hemispherical rider contacting a flat disk at loads of from 50 to 600 grams with a sliding speed of 0.15 cm/min. Results indicate that straining increases friction for dry sliding and for surfaces lubricated with certain benzyl structures such as dibenzyl disulfide. With other benzyl compounds (e.g., benzyl formate), friction coefficients are lower for strained than for annealed iron

    Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

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    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany
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