19,101 research outputs found

    Reference models for thermospheric NO

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    Nitric oxide has been measured with an ultraviolet spectrometer on the polar-orbiting satellite Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) for the period January 1982 to August 1986. The nitric oxide database contains densities at all latitudes sorted into 5 degree bins and at altitudes between 100 and 140 km sorted into 3.3 km-bins. The largest densities occur at latitudes in the auroral zones where the density varies as a function of geomagnetic activity. Variations of a factor of 10 occur between times of intense activity and quiet times. At low latitudes, the nitric oxide density at 110 km varies from a mean value of 3 times 10(exp 7) molecules per cubic cm in January 1982 to a mean value of 4 times 10(exp 6) molecules per cubic cm during solar minimum conditions in 1986. In addition, the low-latitude nitric oxide density varies plus or minus 50 percent with a period of 27 days during times of high solar activity

    Education in the Post-Lake View Era: What Is Arkansas Doing to Close the Achievement Gap?

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    Assesses whether the state's reforms can close the achievement gap among racial and socioeconomic groups. Proposes additional steps such as school health programs, extended learning programs, targeted small classes, and more parental engagement

    No Evidence for [O III] Variability in Mrk 142

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    Using archival data from the 2008 Lick AGN Monitoring Project, Zhang & Feng (2016) claimed to find evidence for flux variations in the narrow [O III] emission of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 142 over a two-month time span. If correct, this would imply a surprisingly compact size for the narrow-line region. We show that the claimed [O III] variations are merely the result of random errors in the overall flux calibration of the spectra. The data do not provide any support for the hypothesis that the [O III] flux was variable during the 2008 monitoring period.Comment: Response to Zhang & Feng 2016, MNRAS Letters, 457, L64 (arXiv:1512.07673). Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters. 5 pages, 2 figure

    Investigation of a lineament expressed in an oblique Apollo 9 photograph

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    The author has identified the following significant results. A linear topographic feature, referred to as the New York Mountains lineament, was recognized in an oblique Apollo 9 photograph to extend from the Providence Mountains of California to near Lake Mead, Arizona. In subsequent vertical ERTS-1 imagery this feature was found to have vague and indistinct expression. A study was conducted to determine the possible geologic origin(s) of the lineament and to explain its anomalous expression in the Apollo 9 photograph. The results suggest that the apparent expression of the lineament is due to a combination of the oblique view of the Apollo photograph, low sun angle illumination of southeast facing slopes, shadowing of northwest facing slopes, and linear snow line along the southeastern flank of the New York Mountains. No geologic or structural causes for the lineament have been found

    A Search for Optical Variability of Type 2 Quasars in SDSS Stripe 82

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    Hundreds of Type 2 quasars have been identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, and there is substantial evidence that they are generally galaxies with highly obscured central engines, in accord with unified models for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). A straightforward expectation of unified models is that highly obscured Type 2 AGNs should show little or no optical variability on timescales of days to years. As a test of this prediction, we have carried out a search for variability in Type 2 quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 using difference-imaging photometry. Starting with the Type 2 AGN catalogs of Zakamska et al. (2003) and Reyes et al. (2008), we find evidence of significant g-band variability in 17 out of 173 objects for which light curves could be measured from the Stripe 82 data. To determine the nature of this variability, we obtained new Keck spectropolarimetry observations for seven of these variable AGNs. The Keck data show that these objects have low continuum polarizations (p<~1% in most cases) and all seven have broad H-alpha and/or MgII emission lines in their total (unpolarized) spectra, indicating that they should actually be classified as Type 1 AGNs. We conclude that the primary reason variability is found in the SDSS-selected Type 2 AGN samples is that these samples contain a small fraction of Type 1 AGNs as contaminants, and it is not necessary to invoke more exotic possible explanations such as a population of "naked" or unobscured Type 2 quasars. Aside from misclassified Type 1 objects, the Type 2 quasars do not generally show detectable optical variability over the duration of the Stripe 82 survey.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in A

    Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

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    We present the first homogeneous sample of intermediate-mass black hole candidates in active galactic nuclei. Starting with broad-line active nuclei from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we use the linewidth-luminosity-mass scaling relation to select a sample of 19 galaxies in the mass range M_BH ~ 8 x 10^4 - 10^6 solar masses. In contrast to the local active galaxy population, the host galaxies are ~1 mag fainter than M* and thus are probably late-type systems. The active nuclei are also faint, with M_g ~ -15 to -18 mag, while the bolometric luminosities are close to the Eddington limit. The spectral properties of the sample are compared to the related class of objects known as narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. We discuss the importance of our sample as observational analogues of primordial black holes, contributors to the integrated signal for future gravitational wave experiments, and as a valuable tool in the calibration of the M-sigma relation.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures. To appear in "The Interplay among Black Holes, Stars and ISM in Galactic Nuclei," Proc. IAU 222 (Gramado, Brazil), eds Th. Storchi Bergmann, L.C. Ho, H.R. Schmit

    The Cost Channel of Monetary Transmission

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    This paper presents evidence that the cost channel' may be an important part of the monetary transmission mechanism. We argue that if working capital is an essential component of production and distribution, monetary contractions can affect output through a supply channel as well as the traditional demand-type channels. We specify an industry equilibrium model and use it to interpret the results of a VAR analysis. We find that following a monetary contraction, many industries exhibit periods of falling output and rising price-wage ratios, consistent with a supply shock in our model. We also show that the effects are noticeably more pronounced during the period before 1979.

    Stellar Velocity Dispersion and Black Hole Mass in the Blazar Markarian 501

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    The recently discovered correlation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion provides a new method to determine the masses of black holes in active galaxies. We have obtained optical spectra of Markarian 501, a nearby gamma-ray blazar with emission extending to TeV energies. The stellar velocity dispersion of the host galaxy, measured from the calcium triplet lines in a 2"x3.7" aperture, is 372 +/- 18 km/s. If Mrk 501 follows the M-sigma correlation defined for local galaxies, then its central black hole has a mass of (0.9-3.4)x10^9 solar masses. This is significantly larger than some previous estimates for the central mass in Mrk 501 that have been based on models for its nonthermal emission. The host galaxy luminosity implies a black hole of 6x10^8 solar masses, but this is not in severe conflict with the mass derived from the M-sigma relation because the M_BH-L_bulge correlation has a large intrinsic scatter. Using the emission-line luminosity to estimate the bolometric luminosity of the central engine, we find that Mrk 501 radiates at an extremely sub-Eddington level of L/L_Edd ~ 10^-4. Further applications of the M-sigma relation to radio-loud active galactic nuclei may be useful for interpreting unified models and understanding the relationship between radio galaxies and BL Lac objects.Comment: To appear in ApJ Letters. 5 pages, 2 figure

    Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and Linear Energy Transfer Spectra

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    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and LET spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions
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