501,646 research outputs found

    An Interprofessional Curriculum on Antimicrobial Stewardship Improves Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Appropriate Antimicrobial Use and Collaboration.

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    BackgroundInappropriate antimicrobial use can threaten patient safety and is the focus of collaborative physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship teams. However, antimicrobial stewardship is not comprehensively taught in medical or pharmacy school curricula. Addressing this deficiency can teach an important concept as well as model interprofessional healthcare.MethodsWe created an antimicrobial stewardship curriculum consisting of an online learning module and workshop session that combined medical and pharmacy students, with faculty from both professions. Learners worked through interactive, branched-logic clinical cases relating to appropriate antimicrobial use. We surveyed participants before and after the curriculum using validated questions to assess knowledge and attitudes regarding antimicrobial stewardship and interprofessional collaboration. Results were analyzed using paired Ōá2 and t tests and mixed-effects logistic regression.ResultsAnalysis was performed with the 745 students (425 medical students, 320 pharmacy students) who completed both pre- and postcurriculum surveys over 3 years. After completing the curriculum, significantly more students perceived that they were able to describe the role of each profession in appropriate antimicrobial use (34% vs 82%, P < .001), communicate in a manner that engaged the interprofessional team (75% vs 94%, P < .001), and describe collaborative approaches to appropriate antimicrobial use (49% vs 92%, P < .001). Student favorability ratings were high for the online learning module (85%) and small group workshop (93%).ConclusionsA curriculum on antimicrobial stewardship consisting of independent learning and an interprofessional workshop significantly increased knowledge and attitudes towards collaborative antimicrobial stewardship among preclinical medical and pharmacy students

    Antimicrobial peptides: agents of border protection for companion animals.

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    Over the past 20 years, there have been significant inroads into understanding the roles of antimicrobial peptides in homeostatic functions and their involvement in disease pathogenesis. In addition to direct antimicrobial activity, these peptides participate in many cellular functions, including chemotaxis, wound healing and even determination of canine coat colour. Various biological and genetic approaches have helped to elucidate the role of antimicrobial peptides with respect to innate immunity and host defense. Associations of antimicrobial peptides with various skin diseases, including psoriasis, rosacea and atopic dermatitis, have been documented in humans. In the longer term, therapeutic modulation of antimicrobial peptide expression may provide effective new treatments for disease. This review highlights current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides of the skin and circulating leukocytes, with particular focus on relevance to physiology and disease in companion animals

    Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus spp. in houseflies and blowflies from farms and their environmental settings

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    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is rising globally at an alarming rate. While multiple active surveillance programs have been established to monitor the antimicrobial resistance, studies on the environmental link to antimicrobial spread are lacking. Methods: A total of 493 flies were trapped from a dairy unit, a dog kennel, a poultry farm, a beef cattle unit, an urban trash facility and an urban downtown area to isolate Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus spp. for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular characterization. Results: E. coli, K. pneumoniae and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were recovered from 43.9%, 15.5% and 66.2% of the houseflies, and 26.0%, 19.2%, 37.0% of the blowflies, respectively. In total, 35.3% of flies were found to harbor antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and 9.0% contained multidrug-resistant isolates. Three Staphylococcus aureus isolates were recovered from blowflies while three extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-carrying E. coli and one ESBL-carrying K. pneumoniae were isolated from houseflies. Whole genome sequencing identified the antimicrobial resistance genes bla(CMY-2) and bla(CTXM-1) as ESBLs. Conclusion: Taken together, our data indicate that flies can be used as indicators for environmental contamination of antimicrobial resistance. More extensive studies are warranted to explore the sentinel role of flies for antimicrobial resistance

    Antimicrobial stewardship practices in Virginia

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    The Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the President\u27s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology recognize the need to combat antimicrobial resistance through the promotion of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Health care facilities in Virginia were surveyed using a 23-item survey focused on facility characteristics and antimicrobial stewardship strategies. Antimicrobial stewardship activities were highly variable and many are missing key personnel and resources

    Triple-targeting Gram-negative selective antimicrobial peptides capable of disrupting the cell membrane and lipid A biosynthesis

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    Early lipid A biosynthesis is a potential antimicrobial target as this is an essential component of lipid A producing Gram-negative bacteria. Herein, we introduce a potent and highly synergistic Gram-negative selective triple-targeting antimicrobial peptide. The peptide contains a dual lipid A biosynthesis inhibiting sequence and an antimicrobial sequence


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    OSCN‚Äst has¬† been¬† known¬† and¬† well¬† documented¬† as¬† natural¬† antimicrobial¬† agent¬† ¬† generated¬† from¬†the¬† lactoperoxidase¬† system¬†(LPOS)¬† but¬† the¬† antimicrobial¬† activity¬† exerted¬† from¬† this¬† system¬† is¬† too¬† low¬† for¬† certain¬† food¬† such¬† as¬† milk¬† and¬† derived¬†products¬†(up¬†to¬†1.2¬†log¬†CFU/ml)¬†resulting¬†in¬†the¬†restriction¬†on¬†industrial¬† development¬† of¬† LPOS.¬† Our¬† previous¬† study¬† concluded¬† that¬† involvement¬† of¬† carrot¬† extract¬†and¬†beta¬†carotene¬†in¬†LPOS¬†significantly¬†boosted¬†the¬†antimicrobial¬†activity¬† (up¬† to¬† 6¬† log¬† CFU/ml)¬† against¬† S.¬† enteritidis.¬† This¬† finding¬† should¬† be¬† continued¬† to¬† the¬† application¬† on¬† food.¬† Since¬† we¬† found¬† that¬† LPOS¬† generates¬† low¬† antimicrobial¬† activity¬† on¬† milk¬† and¬† derived¬† product,¬† our¬† research¬† will¬† be¬† conducted¬† on¬† the¬† application¬† of¬† LPOS¬† plus¬† carrot¬† extract¬† and¬† beta¬† carotene¬† on¬† milk¬† and¬† derived¬† product.¬† Because¬† the¬† high¬† antimicrobial¬† activity¬† is¬† needed¬† for¬† industrial¬† purposes,¬† this¬† research¬† may¬† open¬† the¬† way¬† for¬† industrial¬† development¬† of¬† natural¬† antimicrobial¬†agent¬†from¬†LPOS.¬† This¬†research¬†will¬†be¬†conducted¬†in¬†three¬†steps¬†of¬†experiment:¬†(1)¬†ensuring¬† the¬† incredible¬† antimicrobial¬† activity¬† of¬† LPOS¬† plus¬† carrot¬† extract¬† and¬† beta¬† carotene¬† against¬† three¬† poisonous¬† tropical¬†bacteria:¬† C.¬†jejuni,¬† S.¬†enteritidis,¬† and¬†E.¬† coli,¬† (2)¬† utilization¬† of¬† LPOS¬† plus¬† carrot¬† extract¬† and¬† beta¬† carotene¬† in¬† milk:¬† full¬† cream¬†and¬†skimmed¬†milk,¬†and¬†(3)¬†utilization¬†of¬†LPOS¬†plus¬†carrot¬†extract¬†and¬†beta¬† carotene¬† in¬† milk¬† derived¬† product:¬† yogurt¬† and¬† tropical¬† fruity¬† milk.¬† The¬† purification¬† of¬† LPO¬† from¬† bovine¬† milk,¬† the¬† complimentary¬† data¬† analysis¬† for¬† generation¬† of¬† LPOS¬† antimicrobial¬† activity¬† by¬† the¬† addition¬† of¬† carrot¬† extract¬† and¬† beta¬† carotene¬† will¬† be¬† conducted¬† in¬† Japan¬† and¬† for¬† the¬† application¬† in¬† tropical¬† poisonous¬† bacteria,¬† milk,¬† and¬† milk¬† derived¬† product¬† will¬† be¬† conducted¬† in¬† Indonesia.¬† The¬† outcomes¬† of¬† this¬† research¬† from¬† three¬† step¬† of¬† research¬† are¬† three¬† international¬† publications¬† at¬† international‚Äźscopus‚Äźindexed‚Äźjournals¬† :¬† International¬†Journal¬†of¬† Dairy¬†Science¬†and¬† one¬† of¬† patent:¬† ‚Äúenhanced¬† method¬† for¬† improvement¬†of¬†LPOS¬†antimicrobial¬†activity¬†by¬†involvement¬†of¬†carrot¬†extract¬†and¬† beta¬†carotene¬†in¬†milk¬†and¬†derived¬†product‚ÄĚ.¬†¬† ¬† Keywords:¬† Lactoperoxidase,¬† antimicrobial¬† activity,¬† carrot¬† extract,¬† beta¬† carotene,¬† milk,¬†derived¬†products

    Development and application of an antibiotic spectrum index for benchmarking antibiotic selection patterns across hospitals

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    Standard metrics for antimicrobial use consider volume but not spectrum of antimicrobial prescribing. We developed an antibiotic spectrum index (ASI) to classify commonly used antibiotics based on activity against important pathogens. The application of this index to hospital antibiotic use reveals how this tool enhances current antimicrobial stewardship metrics.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:993‚Äď997</jats:p

    Calli Essential Oils Synergize with Lawsone against Multidrug Resistant Pathogens.

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    The fast development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms increasingly threatens global health and well-being. Plant natural products have been known for centuries as alternative medicines that can possess pharmacological characteristics, including antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activities of essential oil (Calli oil) extracted from the Calligonum comosum plant by hydro-steam distillation was tested either alone or when combined with lawsone, a henna plant naphthoquinone, against MDR microbes. Lawsone showed significant antimicrobial activities against MDR pathogens in the range of 200-300 ¬Ķg/mL. Furthermore, Calli oil showed significant antimicrobial activities against MDR bacteria in the range of 180-200 ¬Ķg/mL, Candida at 220-240 ¬Ķg/mL and spore-forming Rhizopus fungus at 250 ¬Ķg/mL. Calli oil's inhibition effect on Rhizopus, the major cause of the lethal infection mucormycosis, stands for 72 h, followed by an extended irreversible white sporulation effect. The combination of Calli oil with lawsone enhanced the antimicrobial activities of each individual alone by at least three-fold, while incorporation of both natural products in a liposome reduced their toxicity by four- to eight-fold, while maintaining the augmented efficacy of the combination treatment. We map the antimicrobial activity of Calli oil to its major component, a benzaldehyde derivative. The findings from this study demonstrate that formulations containing essential oils have the potential in the future to overcome antimicrobial resistance
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