1,375 research outputs found

    Biblical axiology of Christian social life

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    Ks. J├│zef ZabielskiChristiansÔÇś social life is based on values that are the moral foundations for an individual. Respecting these norms is what makes Christian communities different from other ones and what shapes their way of thinking and activities. These values are rooted in Jesus Christ as their main source and the personal centre of Christianity. This system of norms comes from the Bible, especially from the New Testament. The author focuses on a theological and moral characteristics of biblical axiology of Christian social life, especially on: 1) Love as the foundation of the social unity of the ÔÇśhuman worldÔÇś, 2) Freedom as a prescriptive value of human existence, 3) Truth as the unifying centre of human existence, 4) Peace and joy as characteristic aspects of Christian life.Uniwersytet w Bia┼éymstok

    Hybrid forms of entertainment in the media

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    The media environment is an extremely variable universe where every now and again we can observe the emergence of new phenomena. Many of those form through blending of often rather different and distant areas. As a result, there emerge hybrid forms, which are not entirely established or completely defined. This article is focussed on those kinds of mixed types based on media entertainment, e.g. infotainment, edutainment, politainment, politicotainment, docutainment etc., which can be observed in the means of mass communication. The goal of the study was to define their essence, their distinctive features, and to indicate the place of those hybrid forms within the media discourses being carried on today

    The axiology of Christian education for love, marriage and family in the preaching and pedagogy of father Julian Michalec (1922-1988)

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    Przedstawiony artyku┼é dotyczy aksjologicznego wychowania chrze┼Ťcija┼äskiego w kaznodziejstwie i pedagogii ks. Juliana Michalca, urodzonego na Kresach Po┼éudniowo-Wschodnich II Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w 1922 roku, zmar┼éego w 1988 roku. Nauczanie tego┼╝ duszpasterza-wychowawcy skierowane by┼éo g┼é├│wnie do m┼éodzie┼╝y akademickiej archidiecezji przemyskiej i wroc┼éawskiej w latach 1962-1988, w okresie Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej. Realizowane w warunkach totalitarnych, m.in. w zakresie wychowania do mi┼éo┼Ťci - ma┼é┼╝e┼ästwa - rodziny (kontekst aksjologiczny: religijno-wychowawczy, wybrane aspekty filozoficzno-teologiczne, antropologiczne, ontologiczne, aksjologiczno-pedagogiczne, psychologiczne i socjologiczne: religii, kulturoznawstwa, historii, zw┼éaszcza nauk o rodzinie), uchroni┼éo m┼éodzie┼╝ polsk─ů i jej rodziny przed dechrystianizacj─ů.The article examines axiological Christian education in the preaching and pedagogy of Father Julian Michalec, who was born in the South-Eastern Borderlands of the Second Polish Republic in 1922 and who died in 1988. Th e teaching of this priest-educator was aimed mainly at the academic youth of the Przemy┼Ťl and Wroc┼éaw Archdioceses in the period 1962-1988, during the time of the Polish People's Republic. Th e teaching took place in totalitarian conditions, especially as regards education for love, marriage and family (axiological context: religious and educational; selected aspects of religion, cultural studies, history, and, in particular, family sciences, related to philosophy and theology, anthropology, ontology, axiology and pedagogy as well as psychology and sociology) and it prevented the Polish youth and their families from being dechristianised

    Aksjologia źródeł prawa

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    The expression ÔÇśsources of lawÔÇÖ (fontes iuris oriundi) denotes a social fact which due to the constitution and legal doctrine is qualified as a law-making fact. A complete theory of the sources of law ought to be such that based on its elements it should be possible to state unequivocally whether a given norm of conduct does or does not belong to the norms of the legal system that is binding and applicable. This, in turn, may be decided base on a so-called extended normative conception of the sources of law.The necessary components of this conception are: (i) the political justification of the foundations of a legal system; (ii) the law-making competences of the organs of public authority; (iii) the law-making role of the custom and precedent; (iv) the law-interpreting rules permitted in a given system; (v) the interference rules permitted in a given system, and (vi) the rules governing the conflict of laws in a given system.The system of the sources of law created in this way is on the one hand legitimised by certain values while on the other hand it implements many of them in practice. The basic part of the axiology of the legislator in the sphere of the sources of law is made up by the legally binding values, i.e. the values which the legislator himself introduced to the legal system. They include first and foremost the rule of law, the certainty of law and the citizensÔÇÖ confidence in the state and the laws made by the state as well as the dignity of a human being and the rights and freedoms of an individual. Apart from the legal values there are values of universal character upon which political doctrines are built. These too influence the shape of the sources of law.Wyra┼╝enie ÔÇ×┼║r├│d┼éo prawaÔÇŁ (fons iuris oriundi) oznacza fakt spo┼éeczny, kt├│ry ze wzgl─Ödu na obowi─ůzuj─ůc─ů konstytucj─Ö i doktryn─Ö prawnicz─ů kwalifikowany jest jako fakt prawotw├│rczy. Zupe┼éna teoria ┼║r├│de┼é prawa powinna charakteryzowa─ç si─Ö tym, ┼╝e na podstawie jej element├│w o ka┼╝dej dowolnej normie post─Öpowania mo┼╝na z ca┼é─ů pewno┼Ťci─ů orzec, czy stanowi czy te┼╝ nie norm─Ö obowi─ůzuj─ůcego systemu prawnego. Kwesti─Ö t─Ö mo┼╝na rozstrzygn─ů─ç na podstawie tzw. rozwini─Ötej normatywnej koncepcji ┼║r├│de┼é prawa.Koncepcja ta jako niezb─Ödne swe sk┼éadniki wymienia: 1) uzasadnienie polityczne podstaw systemu prawnego; 2) kompetencje normodawcze organ├│w w┼éadzy publicznej; 3) prawotw├│rcz─ů rol─Ö zwyczaju i precedens├│w; 4) dopuszczane w danym systemie regu┼éy interpretacyjne; 5) dopuszczane w danym systemie regu┼éy inferencyjne oraz 6) dopuszczane w danym systemie regu┼éy kolizyjne.Stworzony w ten spos├│b system ┼║r├│de┼é prawa z jednej strony sam jest legitymowany okre┼Ťlonymi warto┼Ťciami, z drugiej za┼Ť ÔÇĺ wiele z nich realizuje. Podstawow─ů cz─Ö┼Ť─ç aksjologii prawodawcy w sferze ┼║r├│de┼é praw tworz─ů warto┼Ťci obowi─ůzuj─ůce prawnie, tzn. warto┼Ťci, kt├│re sam prawodawca wprowadzi┼é do systemu prawa. Do nich nale┼╝─ů przede wszystkim warto┼Ť─ç pa┼ästwa prawnego, pewno┼Ťci prawa, zaufania obywateli do pa┼ästwa i stanowionego przez nie prawa, ale te┼╝ warto┼Ťci godno┼Ťci cz┼éowieka oraz praw i wolno┼Ťci jednostki. Obok warto┼Ťci prawnych na ukszta┼étowanie ┼║r├│de┼é prawa wp┼éyw maj─ů warto┼Ťci o charakterze powszechnym stanowi─ůce budulec dominuj─ůcych doktryn politycznych

    The Axiology of Rene Le Senne and the Axiology of J├│zef Tischner.

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    The article deals with the philosophy of Le Senne in which man is determined by character and by values. The self results from relation to values. Cognition of God does not create conceptual metaphysics, but it is human act directed to the value. The author claims that Le SenneÔÇÖs metaphysic is the axiology but without the hierarchy of values and criteria. The source of value is God who is not summum esse but Value. For Le Senne value and not being is a priority. That is the one of many similarities to TischnerÔÇÖs philosophy.The article deals with the philosophy of Le Senne in which man is determined by character and by values. The self results from relation to values. Cognition of God does not create conceptual metaphysics, but it is human act directed to the value. The author claims that Le SenneÔÇÖs metaphysic is the axiology but without the hierarchy of values and criteria. The source of value is God who is not summum esse but Value. For Le Senne value and not being is a priority. That is the one of many similarities to TischnerÔÇÖs philosophy

    Axiological methods in therapy

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    Hasło w "Słowniku metod, technik i form pracy socjalnej, opiekuńczej i terapeutycznej" ukazuje zastosowanie metod aksjologicznych w terapii.The entry in "The dictionary of methods, techniques and forms in the social, caring and therapeutic work" presents using the axiological methods in therapy

    The Up-to-Dateness of the Debate on Responsibility to Protect

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    The aim of the article is to review the contemporary debate on the concept of Respon-sibility to Protect. Numerous publications concerning R2P are the best illustration of the fact that it is a very topical subject. Analysing the doctrinal issues focusing on new challenges for contemporary international law the author focuse on a visible change in the international law paradigm, transformation of moral norm into legal one and the effective use of the instruments of R2P application

    Dobro─ç uwalniaj─ůca z "gry w warto┼Ťci". O dekonstrukcji my┼Ťlenia aksjologicznego

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    The aim of this article is to show that metaphysical level is the core and condition of possibility of axiology. The paper focuses on methodological differentiation┬áconcerning two levels: metaphysical and axiological one. The first one is connected with┬áGoodness, which is the essence of values and an atmosphere that precedes every evaluation,┬áwhile the second one means discourse about values. When metaphysical level with┬áits Goodness is forgotten, axiology changes itself into ÔÇťgame of valuesÔÇŁ, that arbitrarily builds hierarchy and tries to measure everything. This ÔÇťgame of valuesÔÇŁ discounts the┬álevel of Goodness and functions as a closed area ÔÇô a system of rules, where there are only ┬ápseudo-values (goods), but there is no reference to Goodness. Without taking into consideration the metaphysical (i.e. ethical in Levinasian terminology) level and personal thinking axiology shows itself as a totalitarian construct, which only seems to be interested in Goodness and in fact it is more focused on constructing values. The difference between metaphysics and axiology is described via phenomenological analysis of Enigma of Goodness (the order of metaphysics) and phenomenon of good (the order of axiology)

    UKŁADY ZBIOROWE PRACY A PRAWO ANTYMONOPOLOWE UNII EUROPEJSKIEJ I STANÓW ZJEDNOCZONYCH

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    Although social concerns are strongly present in the laws of the European Union and the United States, antitrust, or competition, law whose predominant objective is securing the correct working of the competition mechanism, constitutes a vital element of both legal systems. Social concerns remain outside the scope of antitrust (competition) law, which may lead to a very complicated situation between that law and social regulations. There are fields in which those sets of rules are complementary, yet it must be underlined that in some areas the objectives of labour law are different from, and even contrary to, the aims of antitrust (competition) law. The area most sensitive to potential conflicts are the regulations of labour law which are connected with collective bargaining. According to the EU and US law, antitrust (competition) law should not undermine the social objectives recognised by the laws of those states. There is, however, space in those laws in which collective labour agreements may be subject to antitrust (competition) law scrutiny.Wzgl─Ödy spo┼éeczne s─ů silnie chronione w prawie Unii Europejskiej i Stan├│w Zjednoczonych. Wa┼╝nym elementem wskazanych system├│w prawnych jest r├│wnie┼╝ prawo antymonopolowe, kt├│rego cel, najog├│lniej rzecz ujmuj─ůc, stanowi zapewnienie w┼éa┼Ťciwego funkcjonowania rynku. Kwestie socjalne nie mieszcz─ů si─Ö w optyce prawa antymonopolowego. Mo┼╝e to prowadzi─ç do powstania bardzo skomplikowanej sytuacji mi─Ödzy prawem antymonopolowym a unormowaniami s┼éu┼╝─ůcymi ochronie wzgl─Öd├│w socjalnych. Istniej─ů obszary, na kt├│rych te dwa zespo┼éy norm s─ů komplementarne, ale zauwa┼╝y─ç nale┼╝y r├│wnie┼╝, ┼╝e na pewnych p┼éaszczyznach cele prawa pracy s─ů odmienne, a nawet przeciwstawne wobec zada┼ä stawianych przed prawem antymonopolowym. Sfer─Ö, w kt├│rej powstanie konflikt├│w jest najbardziej prawdopodobne stanowi─ů uk┼éady zbiorowe pracy. Zgodnie z unijnym i ameryka┼äskim orzecznictwem prawo antymonopolowe nie mo┼╝e by─ç wykorzystywane do uniemo┼╝liwienia osi─ůgni─Öcia cel├│w socjalnych chronionych przez prawo. Istniej─ů jednak przypadki, w kt├│rych stosownie prawa antymonopolowego do uk┼éad├│w zbiorowych pracy jest mo┼╝liwe

    The scope of jurisdiction of self-governing appellate tribunals

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    Prezentowany artyku┼é zosta┼é wprawdzie napisany z okazji 25-lecia samorz─ůdowych kolegi├│w odwo┼éawczych, nie jest on jednak okoliczno┼Ťciow─ů laurk─ů. Zwraca on uwag─Ö na te cechy samorz─ůdowych kolegi├│w odwo┼éawczych, kt├│re maj─ů charakter w─Öz┼éowy, nieraz dyskusyjny, ale kt├│re ┼Ťwiadcz─ů o wysokiej wadze i klasie omawianej instytucji.Autor wychodzi od zagadnie┼ä konstytucyjnych, wskazuj─ůc, ┼╝e chocia┼╝ obowi─ůzuj─ůca Konstytucja RP nie wspomina o kolegiach, to jednak szereg jej uregulowa┼ä ma wp┼éyw na ich kszta┼ét. Rozwiewa on tu w─ůtpliwo┼Ťci dotycz─ůce tego, czy kolegia s─ů rzeczywi┼Ťcie organami zdecentralizowanymi i czy s─ů one organami samorz─ůdowymi, a tak┼╝e analizuje przepis Konstytucji o zaskar┼╝alno┼Ťci wszelkich orzecze┼ä w toku instancji. Tu w┼éa┼Ťnie pojawia si─Ö po raz pierwszy tytu┼éowa ÔÇ×ranga jurysdykcyjnaÔÇŁ kolegi├│w.Druga cz─Ö┼Ť─ç opracowania dotyczy ustroju i organizacji kolegi├│w i zawiera m.in. dyskusj─Ö z koncepcj─ů zmniejszenia liczby kolegi├│w, a tak┼╝e omawia delikatne relacje mi─Ödzy kolegiami a administracj─ů rz─ůdow─ů. Kolejny punkt dotyczy aksjologicznych aspekt├│w funkcjonowania kolegi├│w, zw┼éaszcza aksjologii administracyjnego toku instancji i jurysdykcji administracyjnej. Przedstawiono tu katalog warto┼Ťci, kt├│re stanowi─ů t┼éo istnienia i funkcjonowania kolegi├│w. Punkt ostatni za┼Ť dotyka praktyki dzia┼éania kolegi├│w i jej licznych problem├│w.Na zako┼äczenie autor stwierdza, ┼╝e kolegia s─ů wielk─ů warto┼Ťci─ů, kt├│r─ů nale┼╝y chroni─ç i szanowa─ç. Wyra┼╝a on stanowcze ┼╝yczenie, ┼╝eby nie przeprowadza─ç drastycznych zmian w zakresie organizacji i funkcjonowania kolegi├│w. Nie mo┼╝na pozwoli─ç nie tylko na rozwijanie skrajnych pomys┼é├│w likwidacji kolegi├│w, ale tak┼╝e na koncepcje pozbawienia ich nale┼╝nej im roli przez likwidacj─Ö lub ÔÇ×sp┼éaszczenieÔÇŁ odwo┼éania administracyjnego, wreszcie przez pozbawienie ich mo┼╝liwo┼Ťci wydawania orzecze┼ä merytorycznych.Although this paper has been written on the twenty-fifth anniversary of self-governing appellate tribunals, it is not meant to be a flattering birthday card. Its purpose is rather to identify the most characteristic features underlying self-governing appellate tribunals which, even if their role or functioning is sometimes disputable, nevertheless prove their high quality and merits.The paper starts with constitutional issues. Although there is no mention of tribunals in the current Constitution, a number of its provisions apply to them. As can be understood from them, appellate tribunals are, beyond doubt, decentralised and self-governing bodies. What is more, an analysis of the constitutional provision regarding challenges to all judicial decisions brings tolight, for the first time, the question of the ÔÇśscope of jurisdictionÔÇÖ of self-governing appellate tribunals which is the subject of this paper.The second part of the paper concerns the regime and organisation of appellate tribunals and it tackles, among other things, the delicate relationships between appellate tribunals and the government administration. The next point discussed in the paper concerns the axiological aspects of the functioning of appellate tribunals. The catalogue of values presented in this part constitutes the background underlying the existence and functioning of appellate tribunals. The last part touches upon the practical problems which appellate tribunals encounter.Concluding, it is stated that appellate tribunals constitute an important value which must be protected and respected. It is also strongly recommended that no drastic changes in their organisation or functioning be made. The extreme voices calling for the liquidation of appellate tribunals should be disallowed, in the same way as attempts to deprive appellate tribunals of their role by abolition of the right of an administrative appeal or their power to issue decisions
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