62 research outputs found

    Change in radio sensitivity of mice under effect of rotation

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    Radiosensitivity of animals placed in slowly rotating chambers was investigated and was found to vary under the influence of the functional load on the vestibular analyzer. An increased radioresistance was registered in populations of the most radiosensitive mice. In populations of more radioresistant animals the gravitational load decreases the radioresistance

    Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

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    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


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    Nuclear accidents in the world from 1950 to 2005

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    Radioactive iodine is present in atmospheric fallout during the first hours of accidental emissions at nuclear power plants. It causes damage to the thyroid gland of varying severity. As a result of lesions with radioactive iodine, pathological changes develop in the thyroid gland, which can affect the productive indicators and reproduction of farm animals. Physiological changes are also diagnosed in animals that do not receive a sufficient amount of iodine compound with food or water. This can lead to pathology of the thyroid gland. Studies of the pathology of the thyroid gland should be carried out on the basis of structural modeling methods and data obtained experimentally. Analysis of the comparison of pathological effects allows to systematize information and use it in scientific and practical purposes. Depending on the intensity and duration of external and internal radiation exposure in farm animals acute or chronic radiation diseases can be diagnosed. Farm animals with or without signs of radiation disease of mild severity are left in farms and used for its intended purpose. Long-term effects of radiation can be manifested as temporary or permanent sterility, metabolic and endocrine status disorders, immunodeficiency, increased sensitivity to infectious diseases, the emergence of tumors. Monitoring of the radiological situation on the territory of the livestock complex is of particular importance, as its products are transported to different regions. Livestock products must meet regulatory requirements. Timely and full implementation of general and specific rules in the field of radiation safety is aimed at ensuring the safety of animals and preserving the quality of animal products

    Radiation Genes: a database devoted to microarrays screenings revealing transcriptome alterations induced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells

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    The analysis of the great extent of data generated by using DNA microarrays technologies has shown that the transcriptional response to radiation can be considerably different depending on the quality, the dose range and dose rate of radiation, as well as the timing selected for the analysis. At present, it is very difficult to integrate data obtained under several experimental conditions in different biological systems to reach overall conclusions or build regulatory models which may be tested and validated. In fact, most available data is buried in different websites, public or private, in general or local repositories or in files included in published papers; it is often in various formats, which makes a wide comparison even more difficult. The Radiation Genes Database (http://www.caspur.it/RadiationGenes) collects microarrays data from various local and public repositories or from published papers and supplementary materials. The database classifies it in terms of significant variables, such as radiation quality, dose, dose rate and sampling timing, as to provide user-friendly tools to facilitate data integration and comparison

    Enterosorption as a method to decrease the systemic toxicity of cisplatin

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    A perspective adsorptive method to minimize systemic toxic effects of chemotherapy is enterosorption (ES). However, the capabilities of this method are far from being completely studied. The question remains opened — should ES be initiated in the first hours on completing cytostatic infusion without the risk of their anticancer activity to be decreased. Aim: to analyze ES influence on anticancer activity and toxic reactions of cisplatin (CP) upon the use of carbon enterosorbent in 1 h after intravenous administration of cytostatic. Methods: CP at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weigh (BW) was administered to Guerin carcinoma-bearing rats each second day for two weeks. Enterosorbents on the basis of highly activated carbon fibers were administered by per os daily 1 h after CP injection. 3 days after the last CP administration the rats were weighted and blood under ether narcosis has been taken for biochemical examination. Tumors and innate organs were isolated, weighted, and fixed in 4% buffered formalin for morphologic examination. Results: In rats administered with CP at the background of ES, BW loss was in 1.6 times lower than in animals after CP session. Relative kidney weight in CP-treated rats was 33.9% higher than in normal ones (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were detected between relative kidney weights in the CP + ES-treated and intact animals. Introduction of ES allowed prevent an 30% increase of creatinin content observed in blood plasma after CP treatment (р ≤ 0.05). Urea content was 1.7 times lower in blood plasma of CP + ES-treated rats than after CP treatment. CP caused significant toxic injuries in kidneys, liver, and spleen tissues. Morphologic structure of organs in rats treated with CP at the background of ES was affected at much lower degree. In tumors, large areas of newly formed connective tissue and blood vessels have been fixed after the CP+ES action instead of large necrotic area observed after CP treatment. ES caused insignificant suppression of Guerin carcinoma growth and had additional impact to inhibitory action of CP. Conclusion: Active carbon enterosorbents which are administrated just 1 h after CP administration possesses detoxicating potential sufficient for significant elimination of toxic effect of the cytostatic at the background of complete preservation of its antitumor activity

    Mechanism of Action for Anti-Radiation Vaccine in Reducing the Biological Impact of High-Dose Irradiation

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    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then collected and circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naive animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. We partially analyzed the biochemical characteristics of the SRDs. The SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which the mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation

    Pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of acute radiation syndrome

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    Introduction: The use of radiation sources in various areas of life generates the risk of accidents and radiation disasters. The increase in terrorist threats as well as the risk of an outbreak of new armed conflicts carries the risk of using radioactive materials by terrorist groups and the military. Exposure to high doses of radiation and absorbing above-threshold doses by victims may cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS), as well as some distant effects. Personnel of the State Emergency Medical System (EMS) will be the first professional medical team in the process of providing assistance to such victims. The effects of further medical treatment in the hospital will depend on EMS’s first response, radiological triage and initial interventions taken. The aim: To present pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of acute radiation syndrome in the context of the medical practice of the EMS. Material and methods: For the purpose of this publication, an analysis of literature on the subject of the mechanism of ionizing radiation and its effects on the human body was performed. The work is focused on the interpretation of research results and their presentation from the EMS’s perspective. Results: The publication presents the impact of ionizing radiation on the body, the mechanism of damage to cellular structures and its consequences for individual organs and systems. ARS’s clinical (hematopoietic, intestinal, cerebrovascular) syndromes were discussed in detail, paying attention to radiation doses, the sensitivity of individual systems and organs, the dynamics of individual phases, as well as the ability to recognize and assess the severity of their progression by EMS personnel. Conclusions: The knowledge of pathophysiology, and ARS’s symptoms and dynamics is important to respond correctly to radiation incidents. This knowledge allows for efficient organization and emergency management during rescue operations. The increase in the risk of radiation incidents and radiation disasters generates the need for appropriate preparation of emergency rescuers, in particular, of the medical personnel of the State Emergency Medical Services