2,175 research outputs found

    A molecular genetic toolbox for Yarrowia lipolytica

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    Background: Yarrowia lipolytica is an ascomycete yeast used in biotechnological research for its abilities to secrete high concentrations of proteins and accumulate lipids. Genetic tools have been made in a variety of backgrounds with varying similarity to a comprehensively sequenced strain. Results: We have developed a set of genetic and molecular tools in order to expand capabilities of Y. lipolytica for both biological research and industrial bioengineering applications. In this work, we generated a set of isogenic auxotrophic strains with decreased non-homologous end joining for targeted DNA incorporation. Genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation of this genetic background uncovers previously unidentified genes in Y. lipolytica. To complement these strains, we constructed plasmids with Y. lipolytica-optimized superfolder GFP for targeted overexpression and fluorescent tagging. We used these tools to build the "Yarrowia lipolytica Cell Atlas," a collection of strains with endogenous fluorescently tagged organelles in the same genetic background, in order to define organelle morphology in live cells. Conclusions: These molecular and isogenetic tools are useful for live assessment of organelle-specific protein expression, and for localization of lipid biosynthetic enzymes or other proteins in Y. lipolytica. This work provides the Yarrowia community with tools for cell biology and metabolism research in Y. lipolytica for further development of biofuels and natural products

    Yarrowia lipolytica : an industrial workhorse

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    Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the most extensively studied ‘‘non-conventional’’ yeasts, being a strictly aerobic microorganism capable of producing important metabolites and having an intense secretory activity, which justifies efforts to use it in industry (as a biocatalyst), in molecular biology and in genetics studies. Moreover, Y. lipolytica has been considered an adequate model for dimorphism studies in yeasts. Yarrowia lipolytica presents the ability to grow on Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) as well as to degradate organic compounds, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, often accompanied by biosurfactants production. One of the most important products secreted by this microorganism is lipase which can be exploited for several applications in the detergent, food, pharmaceutical, and environmental industries. In addition, Y. lipolytica is able to produce citric acid and aroma from a variety of carbon sources, including sugars, alkanes, plant oils, starch hydrolysates, ethanol, and glycerol. Thus, this chapter presents an overview of Yarrowia lipolytica features and its major biotechnological applications

    Yarrowia lipolytica: a model organism for protein secretion studies

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    This paper reviews the advantages of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as a tool in the study of protein secretion. Work has been focused on the early steps leading the polypeptide, from the cytoplasmic ribosomes where it is synthesized, to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Using a thermosensitive allele of the 7SL RNA, the first in vivo evidence for a co-translational translocation was shown. Genetic screens allowed the identification of several new components of the translocation apparatus: Sls1p, an ER lumenal component involved in both translocation and lumenal transit; Tsr1p, involved in SRP-ribosome targeting; Tsr3p. Major translocation partners were also identified by reverse genetics (Sec61p, Sec62p, Kar2p, Srp54p, Sec65p)

    Engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for production of astaxanthin

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    Astaxanthin is a red-colored carotenoid, used as food and feed additive. Astaxanthin is mainly produced by chemical synthesis, however, the process is expensive and synthetic astaxanthin is not approved for human consumption. In this study, we engineered the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for de novo production of astaxanthin by fermentation. First, we screened 12 different Y. lipolytica isolates for β-carotene production by introducing two genes for β-carotene biosynthesis: bi-functional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase (crtYB) and phytoene desaturase (crtI) from the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The best strain produced 31.1 ± 0.5 mg/L β-carotene. Next, we optimized the activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG1) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGS1/crtE) in the best producing strain and obtained 453.9 ± 20.2 mg/L β-carotene. Additional downregulation of the competing squalene synthase SQS1 increased the β-carotene titer to 797.1 ± 57.2 mg/L. Then we introduced β-carotene ketolase (crtW) from Paracoccus sp. N81106 and hydroxylase (crtZ) from Pantoea ananatis to convert β-carotene into astaxanthin. The constructed strain accumulated 10.4 ± 0.5 mg/L of astaxanthin but also accumulated astaxanthin biosynthesis intermediates, 5.7 ± 0.5 mg/L canthaxanthin, and 35.3 ± 1.8 mg/L echinenone. Finally, we optimized the copy numbers of crtZ and crtW to obtain 3.5 mg/g DCW (54.6 mg/L) of astaxanthin in a microtiter plate cultivation. Our study for the first time reports engineering of Y. lipolytica for the production of astaxanthin. The high astaxanthin content and titer obtained even in a small-scale cultivation demonstrates a strong potential for Y. lipolytica-based fermentation process for astaxanthin production

    Regulation of amino-acid metabolism controls flux to lipid accumulation in <i>Yarrowia lipolytica</i>

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    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising microbial cell factory for the production of lipids to be used as fuels and chemicals, but there are few studies on regulation of its metabolism. Here we performed the first integrated data analysis of Y. lipolytica grown in carbon and nitrogen limited chemostat cultures. We first reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic model and used this for integrative analysis of multilevel omics data. Metabolite profiling and lipidomics was used to quantify the cellular physiology, while regulatory changes were measured using RNAseq. Analysis of the data showed that lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica does not involve transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism but is associated with regulation of amino-acid biosynthesis, resulting in redirection of carbon flux during nitrogen limitation from amino acids to lipids. Lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica at nitrogen limitation is similar to the overflow metabolism observed in many other microorganisms, e.g. ethanol production by Sacchromyces cerevisiae at nitrogen limitation

    Synthetic biology tools for engineering Yarrowia lipolytica

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    The non-conventional oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica shows great industrial promise. It naturally produces certain compounds of interest but can also artificially generate non-native metabolites, thanks to an engineering process made possible by the significant expansion of a dedicated genetic toolbox. In this review, we present recently developed synthetic biology tools that facilitate the manipulation of Y. lipolytica, including 1) DNA assembly techniques, 2) DNA parts for constructing expression cassettes, 3) genome-editing techniques, and 4) computational tools

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Yarrowia lipolytica

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    We here report the complete nucleotide sequence of the 47.9 kb mitochondrial (mt) genome from the obligate aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. It encodes, all on the same strand, seven subunits of NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ND1-6, ND4L), apocytochrome b (COB), three subunits of cytochrome oxidase (COX1, 2, 3), three subunits of ATP synthetase (ATP6, 8 and 9), small and large ribosomal RNAs and an incomplete set of tRNAs. The Y. lipolytica mt genome is very similar to the Hansenula wingei mt genome, as judged from blocks of conserved gene order and from sequence homology. The extra DNA in the Y. lipolytica mt genome consists of 17 group 1 introns and stretches of A+Trich sequence, interspersed with potentially transposable GC clusters. The usual mould mt genetic code is used. Interestingly, there is no tRNA able to read CGN (arginine) codons. CGN codons could not be found in exonic open reading frames, whereas they do occur in intronic open reading frames. However, several of the intronic open reading frames have accumulated mutations and must be regarded as pseudogenes. We propose that this may have been triggered by the presence of untranslatable CGN codons. This sequence is available under EMBL Accession No. AJ307410

    Characterization of the Yarrowia lipolytica YlSRP72 gene, a component of the yeast signal recognition particle

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    The Yarrowia lipolytica SRP72 gene product (YlSRP72), a homolog of the 72-kDa subunit of the mammalian SRP, encodes a putative protein of 602 amino acids. Northern blot analysis revealed a unique YlSRP72-specific transcript of 1.8 kb. The deduced amino acid sequence showed higher identities with the Srp72 proteins of euascomycetes than with hemiascomycetes. Chromosomal hybridization experiments showed that the YlSRP72 gene is located in chromosome V of the standard E150 strain of Y. lipolytica. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that the YlSRP72-GFP fusion protein was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The YlSRP72 gene was interrupted by the pop-out method; however, deletion of the gene proved to be lethal. This is in contrast to the results described for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRP72 gene, which is not essential for cell growth, and supports our previous finding with another component of the yeast recognition particle, YlSEC65. The present work suggests that SRP-dependent targeting is the main secretory pathway in Y. lipolytica, as has been described for higher eukaryotes. [Int Microbiol 2007; 10(4):283-289
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