532,939 research outputs found

    The effects of metformin therapy on BMI and biochemical markers among overweight children and adolescents [abstract]

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    Introduction: In the United States, overweight adolescents are likely to continue to gain weight over time and are more likely to become overweight adults. High rates of child and adolescent obesity leave physicians searching for ways to stop this trend. Methods: A retrospective study design was implemented to describe trends of obese adolescent patients who are prescribed metformin as part of treatment in the multidisciplinary adolescent obesity specialty clinic at the University of Missouri. Results: Of the 156 participants in this study, 55 (35%) were prescribed a variable dose of metformin, a drug commonly used for elevated insulin levels, at least once during their clinic visits. The majority of patients in this study (61%) had insulin levels that above 20, which defines hyperinsulinemia. In a chi-square analysis of the data, patients who were in higher BMI categories were more likely to have higher serum insulin levels (p=0.0285). In the analysis of the patients in the study over time, it was found that of the 131 patients who were seen for more than one visit, 111 (85%) of these patients had no increase in BMI. Discussion: The adolescent obesity clinic has shown to halt or reverse weight gain in most of the patients who came for more than one visit. While many factors, including counseling on lifestyle modification (diet and exercise), medication, and routine follow-up can be attributed to the patients' ability to stop weight gain, metformin appears to be a satisfactory adjuvant therapy in the clinical management of adolescent obesity, especially in patients with hyperinsulinemia

    Residual Supply Analysis of the United States Corn Export Market

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    Six models of imperfect competition test the interaction between the United States and Argentina in the Japanese corn import market. The models evaluated were the Bertrand (1883), Cournot (1897), and Stackelberg (1952) with price and quantity leadership by the United States and Argentina. Models were compared using a non-nested likelihood ratio test. Results of the analysis did not show a statistically significant preference of one model over another. The dominance of the United States in the Japanese corn import market is the likely cause for the results. The methodology used in this analysis could be applied to alternate commodities such as soybeans or wheat

    The Mesquakie Memorial Feast

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    The Mesquakie Memorial Feast

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    The Presidential Indian Peace Medal

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    Warner’s Safe Cook Book

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    Published by the H.H. Warner Company, a noted Rochester-based safe (and later patent medicine) manufacturing company, this large cookbook is teeming with hundreds of recipes for everything ranging from mustard pickles to pepper mangoes and venison pie. Apart from the recipes themselves, the extensive descriptions of culinary technique and numerous illustrations of cooking equipment present a lucid portrait of late 19th century American cookery. The advertisements for patent medicine comprising the final 30 or so pages of this volume are of interest as well. (summary written by Joe Easterly)https://knightscholar.geneseo.edu/historical-reprints/1017/thumbnail.jp

    Factors affecting the activity of baker's compressed and active dry yeast : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Biotechnology at Massey University

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    Factors affecting the Activity of Baker's Compressed and Active Dry Yeast. Parameters important in the production of Baker's Yeast were correlated with the product's final activity. Activity was a measure of the gas evolved in a fermenting dough, expressed as mMCO2/hr/g yeast solids. The drying of Compressed Yeast to Active Dry Yeast was optimised in terms of the drying air. A tunnel tray drier was used to dry yeast to a 9% moisture content (dry weight). At 40°C. the optimum drying humidity was found to be 30-32% relative humidity. The leavening ability of yeast dried at 17% and 45% relative humidity decreased. A drying additive, 2% glyceryl monostearate, halved the drying time to 4 hours. Equations were developed to describe these observations as a function of relative humidity, drying time and additive concentration. The equilibrium relative humidity of stored dried yeast was found to be 32% at 20°C. Fermentation parameters were correlated with the activity of Compressed Yeast using an experimental design. Growth temperatures varied from 28°C. to 37°C., initial pH from 4 to 6, glucose concentrations from 0.5% to 3%, nitrogen concentrations from 0.3% to 1.2% and dissolved oxygen varied as either agitated or standing cultures. Factors significantly affecting cell yield and yeast activity were growth temperature, dissolved oxygen and glucose concentrations. Maximal yeast activity occurred at 0.5% glucose concentration, 28°C. and non-agitated conditions. A model was developed to describe yeast activity as a function of these variables. The observed optimal conditions for cell yield were similar to those for yeast activity except for the dissolved oxygen level. Maximum yeast activity of Compressed Yeast occurred in non-agitated fermentations, compared with cell yield which required agitated conditions to achieve the greatest cell yield. A rapid screening test for evaluating dried yeast was incorporated into the yeast activity analysis. This involved monitoring foam production during rehydration

    Evaluation of a Brazilian fuel alcohol yeast strain for Scotch whisky fermentations

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    Traditionally, distilling companies in Scotland have employed a very limited number of yeast strains in the production of alcohol for Scotch whiskies. Recent changes such as the decline in availability of brewers’ yeast as a secondary yeast strain and the availability of yeast in different formats (e.g., dried and cream yeast as alternatives to compressed yeast) have promoted interest in alternative Scotch whisky distilling yeasts. In previous work, we investigated different strains of yeasts, specifically Brazilian yeasts which had been isolated from and used in fuel alcohol distilleries. One of the Brazilian yeasts (CAT 1) showed a comparable fermentation performance and superior stress tolerance compared with a standard commercial Scotch whisky distilling yeast (M Type). The Brazilian CAT 1 yeast isolate was further assessed in laboratory scale fermentations and subsequent new make spirit was subjected to sensory analyses. The spirits produced using the Brazilian strain had acceptable flavour profiles and exhibited no sensory characteristics that were atypical of Scotch whisky new make spirit. This study highlights the potential of exploiting yeast biodiversity in traditional Scotch whisky distillery fermentation processes

    Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

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    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death
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