1,325 research outputs found

    Silicified Mississippian Paleosol Microstructures: Evidence for Ancient Microbial-Soil Associations

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    Silica-replaced microfeatures in a well-developed, Upper Mississippian paleosol from north-central Arizona, were examined by scanning electron microscopy using back-scattered electron imagery. Preserved microfeatures include hollow and solid tubiform filaments and mycelium-like stringers which radiate from problematic (biogenic?) soil structures. Preservation of these features suggest that microstructures in the soil zone are not uniformly destroyed during post-diagenetic silica replacement and that biological soil symbionts may have occurred as early as the Upper Mississippian (~280 Mya)

    The Canine Surrogacy Approach and Paleobotany: An Analysis of Wisconsin Oneota Agricultural Production and Risk Management Strategies

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    The goal of this research is to investigate the nature of Upper Mississippian subsistence systems (circa AD 1050-1450), to evaluate the role of agriculture, and to understand how these dietary choices are related to risk management systems and the development of cultural complexity in the Midcontinent. The research uses the Koshkonong Locality of southeastern Wisconsin as a case study and compares it to other Upper Mississippian groups throughout Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois, Middle Mississippian groups in Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin, and contemporaneous Late Woodland groups in southeastern Wisconsin. This study uses two primary lines of evidence; macrobotanical remains and dietary isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) from dogs. The dog values are interpreted as proxies for human food consumption though the lens of the canine surrogacy approach (CSA). Regionally, the data indicate maize was foundational to all examined Upper and Middle Mississippian populations, Upper Mississippians distributed food more equitably than Middle Mississippians, and each Upper Mississippian locality buffered maize in a unique manner. Locally, the data indicate that the Koshkonong residents were under stress from structural violence and that intralocality cooperation would have been essential for the subsistence system to have functioned effectively

    The Precolonial History of the Macktown Historic District (11WO256)

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    For the past 60 years, Macktown (11WO256) has been the focus of many independent archaeological projects. As a result, the precolonial history of this site has never been holistically examined. In this thesis, precolonial data was gathered from every associated report and compiled to be visually and geospatially analyzed as well as interpreted. Using tools in ArcPro v.2.9, such as the Optimized-Hot Spot analysis tools in conjunction with the Empirical Bayesian Kriging tool, an examination was completed and the Early Archaic (10,000-8,000 BP) to Upper Mississippian (1,000 - 450 BP) occupations were refined. From this research, it has been realized that precolonial Macktown consisted of intermittent occupations throughout various established archaeological horizons and phases. 11WO256 has served as resource procurement stations and bivouacs throughout the Archaic period, to intense temporary base camps and substantial freshwater mollusk exploitation during the Middle and Late Woodland period, to ephemeral occupations during the Mississippian and Upper Mississippian periods. Site function varied, consisting of seasonal freshwater shell extraction, food processing, and stone tool manufacturing. Macktown finds itself as an interim between major cultural movements throughout the western Great Lakes and Upper Mississippian River Valley region

    Late Prehistoric Lithic Economies in the Prairie Peninsula: a Comparison of Oneota and Langford in Southern Wisconsin and Northern Illinois

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    This thesis is an examination of the environmental settlement patterns and the organization of lithic technology surrounding Upper Mississippian groups in Southeastern Wisconsin and Northern Illinois. The sites investigated in this study are the Washington Irving (11K52) and Koshkonong Creek Village (47JE379) habitation sites, contemporaneous creekside Langford and Oneota sites located approximately 90 kilometers apart. A two-kilometer catchment of Washington Irving is compared to that of the Koshkonong Creek Village to clarify the nature of environmental variation in Langford and Oneota settlement patterns and increase our understanding of Upper Mississippian horticulturalist lifeways. Lithic tool and mass debitage analyses use an assemblage-based approach to understand the lithic economies at each site, accounting for procurement and manufacturing strategies and assemblage diversity and complexity

    Spatial Distribution of the Surface Geology and 1992 Land Use of the Buffalo River Watershed

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    The Buffalo River was established by Congress in 1972 as the first National River in the United States and is one of the few remaining free-flowing streams in Arkansas . The Buffalo River flows through the three major physiographic provinces of northern Arkansas, originating in the higher elevations of the Boston Mountains, and flowing generally northeastward to cut through the Springfield and Salem Plateaus. It drops from approximately 2000 feet in the headwaters to around 500 feet above sea level at its confluence with the White River in Marion County. The Buffalo River is considered to be one of Arkansas\u27 greatest natural treasures; thus there is strong interest in protecting it from undue anthropogenic influences. A general description of the area within the Buffalo River Watershed was given by Smith (1967)

    New Chesterian (Upper Mississippian) crinoids from Illinois

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    12 p., 3 pl.http://paleo.ku.edu/contributions.htm

    The Norman Site: Descriptions

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    The Norman site (34WG2) lay on a terrace on the west side of the Neosho (Grand) River in Wagoner County, Oklahoma. Throughout much of its course within Oklahoma, this river flows along the western boundary of the Ozark Uplift. East of the river, the limestones, shales, and sandstones deposited during the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian geological periods form the Boston Mountains and the Springfield Plateau. Several of these formations contain knappable cherts, often of good quality. West of the river, the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian deposits thin and dip under the surface to form the Prairie Plains Province, characterized by low, east-facing escarpments. Sandstone and shale bedrocks underlie the Prairie-Plains Province. The streams flowing eastward across these are muddy and sluggish

    A New Edrioasteroid

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    Two specimens of an edrioasteroid in excellent preservation have been found in the Pella beds, Upper Mississippian, by Amel Priest of Peru, Iowa at an abandoned quarry northeast of Knoxville, Marion County, Iowa. The interior of the theca is exposed in the smaller specimen and the existence of a stone canal is disclosed. The species is described as Discocystis priesti, new species

    Extractive Strategies at Peoria Quarry, Ottowa County, Oklahoma

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    The Peoria Quarry complex was first recognized as representing prehistoric activities by geologist Walter P Jenny in 1891. Jenny, who was studying the zinc and lead mines in southwestern Missouri and adjacent areas, made collections from the Peoria extractive area and submitted these specimens along with an introductory letter to Mr. G. K Gilbert of the United States Geological Survey. The latter contacted William H. Holmes, who visited the location in late October of that year (Holmes 1894:7-8). Prior to the evaluation of Jenny, the site was referred to as old Spanish mines because the local populace could not attribute such extensive digging to prehistoric peoples. Some early accounts of the Peoria Quarry area greatly exaggerated the vertical and horizontal extent of excavations. For example, Nieberding mentions that John P. McNaughton visited these mines in 1877 and concluded that at least 500 to 1000 men must have been engaged in digging pits over an extended period of time in a 40 acre area. According to McNaughton, some of the shafts were 250 to 300 feet in depth, and it amazed him that the pits apparently had been excavated using stone tools. He did not mention the great quantities of lithic debitage which surrounded each pit Holmes, while admitting that digging at the site had been extensive, estimated that chert had been extracted from an area of no more than four or five acres and stated that the greatest depth of pits in 1891 was about five feet. He did mention that a few trenches of 100 feet or more in length could be found along the margins of the site, but stated that most evidence of digging consisted of round pits up to 40 feet in diameter. His sketch map depicts the approximate extent of quarry pits and associated workshop areas

    New Stratigraphic Rank for the Carboniferous, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian in Kansas

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    A new classification for the Carboniferous System/Period is formally adopted by the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), and Zeller (1968) is modified accordingly. The Carboniferous is the system/period between the Devonian and Permian, and the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian are subsystems/subperiods of the Carboniferous. The Mississippian is subdivided into Lower, Middle, and Upper Mississippian Series and the Pennsylvanian is subdivided into Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian Series. Regional stage names remain unchanged
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